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What is the definition of history with reference to it's Greek root historia?
- History is the investigation and the interpretation of the record of the past.
- Historia means inquiry, investigation, or research
Definitions of Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages; compare the cultures associated with each
- Paleolithic: stone age, made things of stone, were hunters and gatherers. did not live in one place, followed the food
- Neolithic: copper age, made things of copper, were agricultural and domesticated animals. living in settled communities (agricultural villages)
Definitions of culture and civilization; list the 6 characteristics civilizations that distinguished them from prehistoric cultures
- Culture: a way of life, a survival strategy of how you adapt to environment
- Civilization: a complex culture, has 6 distinct characteristics
- Specialization of labor
- organized government (kings)
- monumental architecture
- organized religion (priests)
The Hebrew conception of God; list and define the four characteristics attributed to Yahweh
- God is:
- One (monotheism)
- Sovereign (all powerful)
- Transcendent (Above nature and NOT A PART of it)
- Just and Merciful (qualities of a good judge)
The covenant and the law; define and explain how they influenced the Hebrew idea of history
- "If you obey me fully and keep my covenant, then out of all nations you will be my treasured possession"
- the covenant is the lense thru which hebrews view their history.
- Thru history's specific events, God's presence was disclosed and his purpose made known. Basically historical events revealed God's attitude toward humans so they were worth recording
Definition of a mythopoeic worldview and how it differs from the modern scientific worldview
- Mythopoeic: myth making used to describe world view of ancient peoples
- in near east
- Modern scientific worldview: we use reason to figure things out for ourselves. Math and science are important as well as the study of nature
definitions of parochialism and universalism; give illustrations of the difference between the two from Hebrew, Greek, or Roman history
- Parochialism: stressed the special nature, destiny, and needs of certain people. having a narrow or limited outlook
- Universalism: a concern for all humanity
- The hebrews believed they were God's chosen people but the prophets still emphasized social justice and treating everyone kindly
- greeks thought they were better than everyone else as well as roman Patricians. Later changes though
Definition of polis and Kitto's translation of Aristotle's description of a man: a zoon politikon
- Polis: where we get the word politics; city state
- "Man is a creature who lives in a polis"
- Polis gives greeks their identities
Aristotle's 3 general categories of constitutions: list with definitions of the good and deformed varieties of each. According to Aristotle, what makes a constitution good or deformed?
- Good constitution; those that aim for the good of the state.
- 1. Rule by a single man: Monarchy. must be ruled by one lawful king who was elected or inherited the throne. Deformed: Tyranny- gov. by one who seizes power illegally
- 2. Rule by the few: Aristocracy. rule by the best; aristocrats, land owning, good lineage. Deformed: Oligarchy- rule by landowning aristocrats who put their interests first
- 3. Rule by many: Democracy- demos means people, rule by the citizens of a polis who follow laws Deformed: Ochlocracy- mob rule; mob being swayed by powerful demagogues
Identification (author/title) and explaination of passage from Pericles' Funeral Oration (SWT)
- "Our constitution is called a Democracy because power is in the hands not of the minority but of the people"
- Pericles' funeral oration
- As reported by Thusitidies
- Thucitidies writes what he remembers of Pericle's funeral oration meant to cheer up the people after or during the war
Definition of demos as understood by Pericles
- Demos means all of the Citizens
- to be a citizen you must be a free, adult, native-born, male. But it does NOT matter what class you're from
The Athenian Assembly and Council of 500: functions, membership, and method of selection
- Function- passed all laws, made final descisions on war
- Membership- all CITIZENS (free, adult, native-born male)
- Method of selection- all citizens allowed
- Council of 500
- Functions- set agenda for assembly, propose laws, supervise execution of laws
- Membership- 500 citizens. 50 from each of the 10 tribes of Athens. All citizens eligible
- Method of Selection- chosen by lot
The Athenian board of 10 generals (strategoi): it's functions, membership, and method of selection
- Functions- commanded the army, directed policy
- Membership- all citizens eligible though most generals were usually aristocrats
- Method of selection- elected annually by popular vote, can be re-elected
The Peloponnesian War and its causes, how the Athenian invasion of the island of Melos (as reported by Thucydides) exemplifies the outlook that precipitated the war
Identification (author/title) and explanation of the passage from any of the three documents under "The expansion of Reason" in SWT (Hippocrates, Thucydides, Critias)
- Hippocrates: The Sacred Disease; Diseases have natural casuses, not from the gods
- Thucydides: Method of Historical Inquiry; Systematic Observation, everything we know is based on experiance and experiance is based on obersvation of the senses
- Critias: Religion as a human Invention; man invention religion as a way to make people do the right thing even when no one is looking
Definition of empiricism, how Thucydides' method of historical inquiry reflects the empiricism of the Hippocratic physicians
- Empiricism: systematic observation
- Everything Thucydides writes is based on systematic oberservation and experiences; NOT on myths or interventions by the gods. He relies on himself the most; "either I was present or heard from an eyewittness who's source I checked"
Definitions of Sophists and the key aspects of their teaching (rhetoric, skepticism, relativism)
- Sophists: professional teachers who charged high fees, hired to tutor young men in rhetoric and philosophy
- they had 2 kinds of philosophy
- Skepticism- calling into question accepted beliefs and values
- Relativism- the belief that the truth is relative; there is no such thing as absolute truth therefore there are no absolute values of right and wrong
Aristophanes' Clouds and the trial of Socrates: how they illustrate the reaction against philosophy
- Clouds was a play about demythologizing that put it in an extremely unpopular light. even more than it already was. The main character was named Socrates
- Demythologizing was recieved poorly during the war. People were sick of hearing about it and they end up killing socrotes over it.
- dont want to submit things to rational inquiry. Socrotes saying he doesn't believe all the stories of the gods and he is charged with corrupting the youth and dennoucing the gods
Plato's views on democracy and how best to achieve the just state as expressed in his Republic
- 1. ordinary citizens are not capable of adequately governing
- 2. leaders are chosen and followed for nonimportant reasons like wealth and good looks
- 3. democracy can degenerate into anarchy because the citizens lose respect for the law
- 4. a demagogue will be able to gain power whenever anarchy occurs
- only wise philosophers could govern properly. without respect for the law, wise leadership, and proper education for the young, city will degenerate.
Definitions of Hellenic and Hellenistic Ages; compare the cultures associated with each
- Hellenic age:
- Polis-city state
- focus on city
- parochialism- non greeks are barbarians
- broke with mythopoeic outlook; time of philosophy and reason. 3 most famous, Aristotle, Socretes, Plato
- development of rational thought, math, science
- Hellenistic age:
- Kingdoms and empires instead of city-state polis
- focus on the bigger world
- cosmopolitanism and universalism
- philosophers want world community, freedom from emotional stress
definitions of primary and secondary sources; illustrate with examples from sources of the Persepolis exercise
- Primary sources: first hand accounts that provide information about the past, documents produced by people who were living at the time. Best primary sources are eyewitnesses.
- Cleitarchus and Ptolemy
- Secondary sources: second hand account of the past usually written by a historian long after the event has taken place. Must be based on the evidence of primary sources
- Diodorus and Arrian
Points of agreement and disagreement between Diodorus and Arrian in the Persepolis exercise
- Disagreement: Alexander was drunk when he burnt the castle(Arrian says he was sober and talked it over with Parmenio)
- He did it because of the pressure from and with the help of Thais (Thais isn't mentioned in Arrian's account)
- They had a festival when burning the palace
- Agreement: Both wanted revenge against Persians for invasion of Greece
- Both burned down the palace
3 limitations of the materials of history; illustrate with examples from Persepolis exercise
- The fallibility of human memory: eyewitnesses couldn't take notes when this was going on, very hard to remember details, mind can make up its own memories
- The fragmentary historical record: Cleitarchus' account which Diodorus based his history on is lost. So is Arrian's primary source, eyewitness accounts from Ptolemy.
- the subjectivity of historical writing; bias: Many discrepancies in the two accounts. Diodorus says Alexander was drunk, Arrian says he was sober, Diodorus mentions Thais, Arrian doesn't. Possibly because Arrian's info came from Ptolemy who wanted to protect his children from the identity of their mother, the mistress Thais.
identification (author/title) and explaination of passage from Plutarch's "Cultural Fusion" (SWT) why Plutarch thinks Alexander the Great should be regarded as "a very great philosopher"
Definition of the word republic with reference to the meaning of it's latin roots, res and publica
- Res Publica- Res means things or affairs. Public affairs.
- The opposite of a republic is a monarchy. In a monarchy, the state is the private property of the king. In a republic, no one owns the state except the people.
- Republic: state governed not by a king but by magistrates aka officials who govern by LAWS
Definitions of patricians and plebians: compare their relative positions in Roman soceity and government before and after the Struggle of the Orders; explain how the reforms were achieved
- Particians: wealthy land owning aristocracy; small number of wealthy families. About 300
- Plaebeians: free commoners; all the rest of the citizens, usually a small farmer. made them eligible for military service, they have small amnt of land.
- At the beginning of the roman republic, all three branches of gov were controlled by the patricians.
- After struggle of the orders plebs won series of reforms from the partricians that gave them a voice. Plebs won:
- Appt of Tribune to protect them
- plebeian assembly
- written list of laws
- right to mary patricians
- 1 out of two consuls must be a plebian
- plebiscites (votes of plebian assembly) apply to all romans
- reforms acheived by: plebs made up rank and file of roman army. they had power to go on strike if the patricians did something they didn't like.
Identification (author/title) and explaination of passage from Polybius "On the Roman Constitution", why he concluded that "it is impossible to find a better political system than this"
- Polybius History book 6 "On the Roman Constitution"
- The best constituion is one combining all 3 varieites; Monarchy, Aristocracy, Democracy
- Rome's constitution does that and so it has built in checks and balances
- Consuls exercise the power of a king in a Monarchy
- Senate exercises power of aristocracy
- People (citizen assemblies) exercise power of democracy
- checks in wartime; consuls command army, citizens elect consuls, senate provides consuls with funds
The Gracchian Revolution and how it started the "downhill slide" of the Roman Republic
agricultural crisis, importation of slaves, murder of reformists, corrupt senatorial class
The military policy of Marius and how it "contributed to the wrecking of the Republic"
marius hired volunteers from urban poor for his army. gave their lyalty only to marius because of promise of pay. armies bcame private possession of generals
The achievement of Augustus: how the Roman world after him differed from the one before
used republican institutios to reconcile military monarchy. held absolute power without breaking with republican past. imperial bureaucracy (enabld dedicated men to serve the state) evolved
What explains the succession of "Five Good Emperors"
adoptive system (adopt a son for designated heir with proven ability to ensure succession of competant rulers)
Define Pax Romana; what made it a "Time of Happiness"? 3 reasons
- Pax romana (roman peace) 200 yrs of peace order, efficient administration and prosperity.
- constructive rule- built roads, sewage system, stable currency
- improved conditions for slaves and women
- orderly world community- united by roman rule, broke barriers between nations, preserve and spread greco-roman civilization, and developed rational system of law that applied to all humanity.