Lincoln, who planed for a swift and moderate Reconstruction process, proposed that as soon 10 percent of the voting population took an oath to the U.S and established a government, it would be rcognized.
What two theories did Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner advocated in respone to Lincoln's Reconstruction Plan?
Stevens - "Conquered province" theory
Sumner - " State suicide" theory
What was the Wade-Davis Bill?
A bill which made the process of being readmitted to the Union harsh and slow.
True/False: Lincoln pocket-vetoed the Wade-Davis Bill.
What did the Thirteenth Amendment do?
It abolished slavery and gave Congress power of enforcement.
What was the Freedman's Bureau?
Created by Congress to aid southern refugees by supplying food and medical services, building schools, negotiating contracts between freedmen and former masters, and trying to manage confiscated land.
How did former slaves first begin to explore freedom?
By looking for family members or mobilizing. Others too cautious to do so stayed with their former masters and tried to manage their own labor conditions.
How did blacks try to establish independence?
By avoiding contact with former slave owners by relocating, even establishing all black colonies.
What, next to freedom, did blacks desire most? Were they able to obtain this?
Land. Most were not able to secure land.
True/False: Blacks started building schools without any help.
False. Federal aid and northern charity helped them.
What was the social center of black freedom?
True/False: Sharecropping was an honest system, where both freemen and owners prospered and lived happily ever after.
False. Tenants were oftend cheated by owners, who took advantage of their inability to get credit.
Why did southern farmers begin to join the ranks of sharecroppers?
Most southern farmers grew cotton, but a weak market created low prices, leading to farmers losing their land.
Who was the only senator from a seceded state to refuse to follow his state out of the Union?
Andrew Johnson of Tennessee, a Jacksonian Democrat who beleived in limited government.
True/False: Jackson was all for black equality.
False. Johnson was a white supremacist who beleived that black suffrage could not be imposed on southern states.
What was Jackson's Pardon Policy?
Jackson barred to high-ranking officials who joined the Confederac from gaining amnesty.
True/False: Jackson pardoned most southern aritocrats and former rebels, despite his pardon policy.
When did Jackson declare Reconstruction over?
8 months after Appomattox.
What were the black codes?
Discriminatory codes that tried to return freemen to servility.
What did Radicals want?
To transform the south, even if it meant excluding it from the Union.
True/False: The conservative and moderate Republicans wanted to work with the Radicals.
False: Johnson and the Democrats refused to work with the Republicans, so they were forced to work with the Radicals.
What did Johnson do when Congress attempted to extend the Freedman's Bureau and tried to counteract the black codes with the Civil Rights Act of 1866? How did Congress respond?
He vetoed both bills; however, Congress overrode his veto.