Psych309

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
10343
Filename:
Psych309
Updated:
2010-03-14 00:20:37
Tags:
cognition psychology
Folders:

Description:
Cognitive Psychology 309
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Attention
    - an active process; we control what we attend to

    • Bottom-Up Processing:
    • - attention driven by eternal stimuli
    • - reflexive, non-volitional
    • (ex. sudden events, objects)

    • Top-Down Processing
    • - attention driven by internal factors
    • - volitional, self-directed, deliberate
    • (ex. expertise, expectancy - change blindness)
  2. Attention & Task
    - we selectively attend to both objects and tasks

    • Problems with multitasking:
    • 1. Affects object selection
    • (ex. Handy - visual cortex less sensitive to peropheral details when multitasking)

    • 2. Overloads shared processes
    • (ex. Boroditsky - for Russian speakers in the 'near' condition, color discrimination and verbal task both use language processes)

    • 3. Attentional set shifting
    • - attentional set = object and process selection parameters for a task
    • - multitasking involves rapid shifting of attention from one task to another, not division
    • (ex. Meyers - attentional set shifting impairs performance for both complex and simple tasks)
    • (ex. Strayer - cell phone use while driving is equal to driving while drunk)
  3. Attention & Priming
    • Semantic Associations
    • - linkages between objects, concepts, and ideas

    • (ex. color - red is associated with vigilance and avoidance; blue associated with openness and approach)
    • (ex. priming - associations with age, rudeness, and race)
  4. Rationality
    • Rational Choice Theory:
    • 1. Individual has complete info
    • 2. Individual has cognitive ability to decide
    • 3. Individual has sufficient time to decide
    • 4. Preferences are stable and transitive
    • 5. Value of gains vs. losses is equal

    • Prospect Theory
    • - Negative value of losses > positive value of gains
    • - Satisficing: single-factor decision-making
    • - Bounded rationality and use of heuristics under constraints (ex. recognition heuristic)
    • - Heuristics are fast and frugal, based on a single factor, adaptive
  5. Perspective & Bias
    • Prospect Theory & Loss Aversion
    • - people are more likely to pay to avoid a loss than pay for a gain

    • Free Effect
    • - people are biased toward things that are free
    • - an emotional, impulsive response
    • - effect disappears after analysis

    • Curse of Knowledge
    • - biased assumption that others share our knowledge

    • Relative Perspective
    • - tendency to de-emphasize the impact of our actions upon others, over-emphasize impact of others' actions on us
  6. Implicit Learning
    • - acquiring knowledge without intending to do so, without being consciously aware of learning
    • (ex. HM - implicit motor learning; van Nurennout - implicit spatial learning/ navigational route learning)

    • - implicit and explicit learning systems are independent and distince
    • (ex. MS - intact explicit learning, but no implicit learning; double dissociation with HM)

    • - there are separate systems even within the implicit learning system
    • (ex. MS - intact implicit conceptual learning, but not perceptual learning)

    • Meaning Maintenance Model
    • - when faced with dissociations in meaning, we implicitly search for new patterns in the environment
    • (ex. Heine)
  7. Self-Reflection
    • - we have poor knowledge of the reasons behind our actions and feelings
    • - reasoning interferes with our evaluation of our real feelings
    • (ex. Wilson - relationship and puzzle analysis)

    • - we can be led to think we're affected by something, even when we're not
    • - reasoning via rumination perpetuates depression and anger
    • - reasoning and conscious deliberation interferes with insight problem-solving

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview