Path II- Mini 2

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  1. WHich IBD has transmural inflammation?
  2. Which IBD has bowel wall thickening? Why
    Crohns--bc of transmural inflammation which causes edema
  3. Which IBD involves the rectum and has continous colonic involvement up to the transverse colon?
  4. Which IBD has creeping fat?
  5. Which IBD has granulomas?
  6. Which IBD has skip lesions and rectal sparing?
  7. Which IBD has pseudopolypps?
  8. Which IBD has Lead pipe mophology?
  9. Which IBD has cobblestone appearance of the mucosa?
  10. What is sclerosing cholangitis?
    inflammation and ulceration of bilducts inside and outside the liver
  11. Pyoderma gangrenosum and sclerosing cholangitis are extra-intestinal manifestations of what IBD?
  12. Most common congenital anamoly of the GI tract?
    Meckels diverticulum
  13. Meckels diverticulum is a remnant of what fetal structure?
    vitelline duct
  14. Why is the mecke's diverticulum a "TRUE" diverticulum?
    • because it contains all three layers of the wall i.e
    • mucosa
    • submucoa
    • muscularis propria
  15. What kind of ectopic tissue might be present at a Meckel's Diverticulum?
    gastric or pancreatic mucosa secreting gastric acid and causing ulceration and bleeding giving rise to anemia and occult stools
  16. What are the rules of 2 for Meckel's Diverticulum?
    • 2% of population has it
    • 2 feet away from the ileocecal valve
    • 2 inches long
    • 2% are symptomatic
  17. What connects the lumen of the developing gut to the yolk sac?
    vitelline duct
  18. What is halithosis?
    bad breath
  19. What is Zenker's diverticulum?
    false diverticulum at the junction of pharynx and esophagus causing halithosis, dysphagia, obstruction
  20. What is a false vs true diverticulum?
    • true--3 layers--mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa
    • false--2 layers--mucosa, submucosa,
  21. Diverticulosis occurs where?
    sigmoid colon
  22. What is the physiology of the Diverticulosis?
    herniation of mucosa and submucosa thru the muscularis externa
  23. What is the common site for a false diverticulum?
    where the vasa recta perforates the muscularis externa
  24. What is the etiological factor of diverticulosis?
    low-fiber diet
  25. What embryological structure gives rise to enteric ganglionic Auerbach's and Meissner's Plexi?
    Neural crest cells
  26. What structure is absent in Hirschsprung disease?
    enterric nervous system--parasympathetic Myenteric and Meissner's plexi
  27. Hirschspurng disease is associated with what congenital syndrome?
    Down syndrome
  28. WHat is the difference between diarrhea and dysentry?
    • diarrhea--increase frequency, high volume
    • Dysentry--low volume with mucus and blood
  29. Test done for Rotavirus in infants?
    rota virus antigen test
  30. Tx for Pseudomembranous colitis?
  31. what antibiotic use precipitates Pseudomembraneous colitis?
    • clindamyocin
    • ampicillin
  32. The pseudomembrane in Pseudomembraneous colitis is made up of what?
    neutrophils, fibrin, necrotic cells, mucin
  33. What 3 antibodies are present in Celiac sprue?
    • anti-gliadin
    • anti-endomysial
    • anti-transglutaminase
  34. Dermatitis Herpetiforms is associated with what malabsorption Dz?
    Celiac Sprue
  35. What happens to the villi in Celiac Sprue?
    What cells are present in the Lamina Propria?
    • Blunting of villi
    • Plasma cells are present
  36. What is Tropical Sprue?
    How is it different from Celiac Sprue
    Malabsorptive disease similar to Celiac sprue but responds to vitamins and antibiotics
  37. In what region do people get Tropical Sprue?
    Caribbean and Central America
  38. What causes Whipple's Disease?
    Tropheryma Whippeli
  39. Tropheryma Whippeli is what kind of gram staining organism?
    Gram +
  40. PAS staining gram positive organisms with macrophages in the lamina propria are indicative of what malabsorption disease?
    Whipple's Disease
  41. A diarrhea presenting with multisystem symptoms e.g arthritis, liver, spleen, CNS is most likely what malabsorption disease?
  42. WHat are the sites of a volvulus?
    • cecum
    • sigmoid colon
  43. What is a volvulus?
    twisting of a portion of a bowel around its mesentery
  44. What are the consequences of a volvulus?
    • intestinal obstruction
    • Infarction
  45. Intussusception?
    telescoping of a proximal segment into distal segment
  46. What are the causes for intussusception?
    • just a mass --preventing peristalsis --mass--polyp, tumor in adults, peyers patches hyperplasia
    • in children--adenovirus infection
  47. Red currant jelly stools are indicative of what GI malformation?
  48. what is an incarcerated hernia?
    visceral segment protrudes thru the wall--may leade to infarction
  49. What causes Intestinal Adhesions?
    surgery, infections, endometriosis
  50. In which IBD do you seen Apthous Ulcers and Linear fissures?
  51. Which IBD presents with bloody diarrhea?
  52. Which IBD has Crypt abscess?
  53. Which IBD increases chances of colorectal adenocarcinoma?
  54. Which IBD may present with toxic megacolon?
  55. Which IBD has extraintestinal manifestations due to immune-complex like deposition such as erythema nodosum, migratory polyarthritis?
  56. Which polyps have a higher risk of malignancy?
    Tubular or Villous?
  57. Malignancy of polyps increases with what factors?
    • Villous size
    • Histology
    • extent of dysplasia
  58. Are hyperplasic polyps malignant?
  59. ARE juvenile polyps malignant?
    no if they're single
  60. Where do most hyperplasic polyps occur?
    in the sigmoid region
  61. WHIch tumors have a sawtooth appearance?
    Hyperplastic Tumors
  62. What is Peutz-Jegher Synrome?
    • multiple Hamartomas in GI tract
    • hyperpigmented lesions around the mouth, hands, genitalia
  63. What is Juvenile Polyposis syndrome?
    multiple juvenile polyps in GI tract
  64. Whats Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome?
    non-familial Polyps + anomalies of skin, nails alopecia
  65. What is the treatment for FAP?
    prophylactic colectomy
  66. What is the first gene inactivated in FAP?
  67. What is Gardner's Syndrome?
    FAP + soft tissue tumors
  68. What is Turcot's syndrome?
    FAP + CNS tumors
  69. hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer/LYNCH syndrome is caused by what?
    Mismatch repair gene mutation
  70. What are the sequential mutation of genes involved in CRC?
    APC, K-ras, p53
  71. What are the two molecular pathways leading to CRC?
    • DNA mismatch repair genes
    • Apc/beta catenin pathway
  72. How can colon cancer be differentiated from ascending colon and descending colon location?
    • ascending--anemia
    • descending--change in bowel movement
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Path II- Mini 2
Path II- Mini 2
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