Path II- Mini 2
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Path II- Mini 2
Path II Mini
Path II- Mini 2
WHich IBD has transmural inflammation?
Which IBD has bowel wall thickening? Why
Crohns--bc of transmural inflammation which causes edema
Which IBD involves the rectum and has continous colonic involvement up to the transverse colon?
Which IBD has creeping fat?
Which IBD has granulomas?
Which IBD has skip lesions and rectal sparing?
Which IBD has pseudopolypps?
Which IBD has Lead pipe mophology?
Which IBD has cobblestone appearance of the mucosa?
What is sclerosing cholangitis?
inflammation and ulceration of bilducts inside and outside the liver
Pyoderma gangrenosum and sclerosing cholangitis are extra-intestinal manifestations of what IBD?
Most common congenital anamoly of the GI tract?
Meckels diverticulum is a remnant of what fetal structure?
Why is the mecke's diverticulum a "TRUE" diverticulum?
because it contains all three layers of the wall i.e
What kind of ectopic tissue might be present at a Meckel's Diverticulum?
gastric or pancreatic mucosa secreting gastric acid and causing ulceration and bleeding giving rise to anemia and occult stools
What are the rules of 2 for Meckel's Diverticulum?
2% of population has it
2 feet away from the ileocecal valve
2 inches long
2% are symptomatic
What connects the lumen of the developing gut to the yolk sac?
What is halithosis?
What is Zenker's diverticulum?
false diverticulum at the junction of pharynx and esophagus causing halithosis, dysphagia, obstruction
What is a false vs true diverticulum?
true--3 layers--mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa
false--2 layers--mucosa, submucosa,
Diverticulosis occurs where?
What is the physiology of the Diverticulosis?
herniation of mucosa and submucosa thru the muscularis externa
What is the common site for a false diverticulum?
where the vasa recta perforates the muscularis externa
What is the etiological factor of diverticulosis?
What embryological structure gives rise to enteric ganglionic Auerbach's and Meissner's Plexi?
Neural crest cells
What structure is absent in Hirschsprung disease?
enterric nervous system--parasympathetic Myenteric and Meissner's plexi
Hirschspurng disease is associated with what congenital syndrome?
WHat is the difference between diarrhea and dysentry?
diarrhea--increase frequency, high volume
Dysentry--low volume with mucus and blood
Test done for Rotavirus in infants?
rota virus antigen test
Tx for Pseudomembranous colitis?
what antibiotic use precipitates Pseudomembraneous colitis?
The pseudomembrane in Pseudomembraneous colitis is made up of what?
neutrophils, fibrin, necrotic cells, mucin
What 3 antibodies are present in Celiac sprue?
Dermatitis Herpetiforms is associated with what malabsorption Dz?
What happens to the villi in Celiac Sprue?
What cells are present in the Lamina Propria?
Blunting of villi
Plasma cells are present
What is Tropical Sprue?
How is it different from Celiac Sprue
Malabsorptive disease similar to Celiac sprue but responds to vitamins and antibiotics
In what region do people get Tropical Sprue?
Caribbean and Central America
What causes Whipple's Disease?
Tropheryma Whippeli is what kind of gram staining organism?
PAS staining gram positive organisms with macrophages in the lamina propria are indicative of what malabsorption disease?
A diarrhea presenting with multisystem symptoms e.g arthritis, liver, spleen, CNS is most likely what malabsorption disease?
WHat are the sites of a volvulus?
What is a volvulus?
twisting of a portion of a bowel around its mesentery
What are the consequences of a volvulus?
telescoping of a proximal segment into distal segment
What are the causes for intussusception?
just a mass --preventing peristalsis --mass--polyp, tumor in adults, peyers patches hyperplasia
in children--adenovirus infection
Red currant jelly stools are indicative of what GI malformation?
what is an incarcerated hernia?
visceral segment protrudes thru the wall--may leade to infarction
What causes Intestinal Adhesions?
surgery, infections, endometriosis
In which IBD do you seen Apthous Ulcers and Linear fissures?
Which IBD presents with bloody diarrhea?
Which IBD has Crypt abscess?
Which IBD increases chances of colorectal adenocarcinoma?
Which IBD may present with toxic megacolon?
Which IBD has extraintestinal manifestations due to immune-complex like deposition such as erythema nodosum, migratory polyarthritis?
Which polyps have a higher risk of malignancy?
Tubular or Villous?
Malignancy of polyps increases with what factors?
extent of dysplasia
Are hyperplasic polyps malignant?
ARE juvenile polyps malignant?
no if they're single
Where do most hyperplasic polyps occur?
in the sigmoid region
WHIch tumors have a sawtooth appearance?
What is Peutz-Jegher Synrome?
multiple Hamartomas in GI tract
hyperpigmented lesions around the mouth, hands, genitalia
What is Juvenile Polyposis syndrome?
multiple juvenile polyps in GI tract
Whats Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome?
non-familial Polyps + anomalies of skin, nails alopecia
What is the treatment for FAP?
What is the first gene inactivated in FAP?
What is Gardner's Syndrome?
FAP + soft tissue tumors
What is Turcot's syndrome?
FAP + CNS tumors
hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer/LYNCH syndrome is caused by what?
Mismatch repair gene mutation
What are the sequential mutation of genes involved in CRC?
APC, K-ras, p53
What are the two molecular pathways leading to CRC?
DNA mismatch repair genes
Apc/beta catenin pathway
How can colon cancer be differentiated from ascending colon and descending colon location?
descending--change in bowel movement