Med. Term. Chp. 4

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cbweathers
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Med. Term. Chp. 4
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2011-09-22 02:42:42
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Body Structure
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  1. chromatin
    Structural component of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acids and proteins.

    Chromatin condenses to form chromosomes during cell division.
  2. chromosome
    Threadlike structures within the nucleus composed of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule that carries hereditary information encoded in genes.

    Each sperm and each egg has 23 unpaired chromosomes. After fertilization, each cell of the embryo then has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs). In each pair of chromosomes, one chromosome is inherited from the father and the other from the mother.
  3. cytoplasm
    Jellylike substance found within the cell membrane composed of proteins, salts, water, dissolved gases, and nutrients.

    All cellular structures, including the nucleus and organelles, are embedded in cytoplasm.
  4. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    Molecule that holds genetic information capable of replicating and producing an exact copy whenever the cell divides.
  5. diaphragm
    Muscular wall that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdonimopelvic cavity.

    Alternating contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm is essential to the breathing process.
  6. metabolism
    Sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism.

    Metabolism includes the building up (anabolism) and breaking down (catabolism) of body constituents.
  7. organelle
    Cellular structure that provides a specialized function, such as the nucleus (reproduction), ribosomes (protein synthesis), Golgi apparatus (removal of material from the cell), and lysosomes (digestion).

    The membranes of many organelles act as sites of chemical reactions.
  8. pathology
    Study of the nature of diseases, their causes, development, and consequences.

    Pathology as a branch of medicine includes the use of laboratory methods rather than clinical examination of signs and symptoms to study the causes, nature, and development of diseases.
  9. peristalsis
    Rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the walls of a tubular organ to propel its contents onward.
  10. Dorsal Cavity: Cranial
    Brain
  11. Dorsal Cavity: Spinal
    Spinal cord
  12. Ventral Cavity: Thoracic
    Heart, lungs, and associated structures
  13. Ventral Cavity: Abdominopelvic
    Digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs and structures
  14. Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)
    Right lobe of liver, gallbladder, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines
  15. Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)
    Left lobe of liver, stomach, spleen, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines
  16. Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)
    Part of small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, right ureter
  17. Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)
    Part of small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter
  18. Left hypochondriac region
    Upper left region beneath the ribs
  19. Epigastric region
    Region above stomach
  20. Right hypochondriac region
    Upper right region beneath the ribs
  21. Left lumbar region
    Left middle lateral region
  22. Umbilical region
    Region of the navel
  23. Right lumbar region
    Right middle lateral region
  24. Left inguinal (iliac) region
    Left lower lateral region
  25. Hypogastric region
    Lower middle region beneath the navel
  26. Right inguinal (iliac) region
    Right lower lateral region
  27. Medial
    Pertaining to the midline of teh body or structure
  28. Lateral
    Pertaining to a side
  29. Superior (cephalad)
    Toward the head or upper portion of a structure
  30. Inferior (caudal)
    Away from the head, or toward the tail or lower part of a structure
  31. Proximal
    Nearer to the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachment to the body
  32. Distal
    Further from the center (trunk of the body) or from the point of attachment to the body
  33. Anterior (ventral)
    Front of the body
  34. Posterior (dorsal)
    Back of the body
  35. Parietal
    Pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity
  36. Visceral
    Pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs, especially the abdominal organs
  37. Prone
    Lying on the abdomen, face down
  38. Supine
    Lying horizontally on the back, face up
  39. Inversion
    Turning inward or inside out
  40. Eversion
    Turning outward
  41. Palmar
    Pertaining to the palm of the hand
  42. Plantar
    Pertaining to the sole of the foot
  43. Superficial
    Toward the surface of the body (external)
  44. Deep
    Away from the surface of the body (internal)
  45. Cyto
    Cell
  46. Cytologist
    Specialist in study of cells

    Cytologists study the formation, structure, and function of cells.
  47. Histo
    Tissue
  48. Histology
    Study of tissues

    Histology is the branch of science that investigates the microscopic structures and functions of tissues.
  49. Karyo
    Nucleus
  50. Karyolysis
    Destruction of the nucleus

    Karyolysis results in death of the cell.
  51. Nucleo
    Nucleus
  52. Nuclear
    Pertaining to the nucleus
  53. Antero
    Anterior, front
  54. Anterior
    Pertaining to the front
  55. Caudo
    Tail
  56. Caudad
    Toward the tail

    Caudad is opposite of craniad.
  57. Cranio
    Cranium (skull)
  58. Cranial
    Pertaining to the cranium
  59. Disto
    Far, farthest
  60. Distal
    Pertaining to the farthest (point of attachment)

    Distal refers to the point furthest from the center (trunk) of the body or from the point of attachment to the body. Thus, the fingers are distal to the wrist.
  61. Dorso
    Back (of the body)
  62. Dorsal
    Pertaining to the back (of the body).
  63. Infero
    Lower, below
  64. Inferior
    Pertaining to a lower (structure or surface)

    The inferior surface is the undersurface of a structure or organ, or a place below a structure or organ.
  65. Latero
    Side, to one side
  66. Lateral
    Pertaining to a side
  67. Medio
    Middle
  68. Mediad
    Toward the middle
  69. Postero
    Back (of body), behind, posterior
  70. Posterior
    Pertaining to the back (of the body)
  71. Proximo
    Near, nearest
  72. Proximal
    Pertaining to the nearest (point of attachment)

    Proximal refers to the point closes to the center (trunk) of the body or to the point of attachment to the body. Thus, the elbow is proximal to the wrist.
  73. Ventro
    Belly, belly side
  74. Ventral
    Pertaining to the belly side (front of the body)
  75. Abdomino
    Abdomen
  76. Abdominal
    Pertaining to the abdomen
  77. Cervico
    Neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)
  78. Cervical
    Pertaining to the neck
  79. Cranio
    Cranium (skull)
  80. Cranial
    Pertaining to the cranium
  81. Gastro
    Stomach
  82. Hypogastric
    Pertaining to (the area) below the stomach
  83. Ilio
    Ilium (lateral, flaring portion of hip bone)
  84. Ilial
    Pertaining to the ilium
  85. Inguino
    Groin
  86. Inguinal
    Pertaining to the groin

    The groin is the depression located between the thigh and trunk.
  87. Lumbo
    Loins (lower back)
  88. Lumbar
    Pertaining to the loins (lower back)
  89. Pelvi
    Pelvis
  90. Pelvimeter
    Instrument for measuring the pelvis
  91. Pelvo
    Pelvis
  92. Pelvic
    Pertaining to the pelvis
  93. Spino
    Spine
  94. Spinal
    Pertaining to the spine
  95. Thoraco
    Chest
  96. Thoracic
    Pertaining to the chest
  97. Umbilico
    Umbilicus, navel
  98. Umbilical
    Pertaining to the navel
  99. Albino
    White
  100. Albinism
    Condition of whiteness

    Ablinism is characterized by a partial or total lack of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes.
  101. Leuko
    White
  102. Leukocyte
    White cell

    A leukocyte is a white blood cell.
  103. Chloro
    Green
  104. Chloropia
    Green vision

    Chloropia is a disorder in which viewed objects appear green. It is associated with a toxic reaction to digitalis.
  105. Chromo
    Color
  106. Heterochromic
    Pertaining to different colors

    Heterochromia is associated with the iris or sections of the iris of the eyes. Thus, the individual with heterochromia may have one brown iris and one blue iris.
  107. Cirrho
    Yellow
  108. Cirrhosis
    Abnormal yellowing

    In cirrhosis, the skin, sclera of the eyes, and mucous membranes take on a yellow color. Cirrhosis of the liver is usually associated with alcoholism or chronic hepatitis.
  109. Jaundo
    Yellow
  110. Jaundice
    Yellowing

    Jaundice is caused by an abnormal increase of bilirubin (a yellow compound) formed when red blood cells are destroyed) in the blood.
  111. Xantho
    Yellow
  112. Xanthocyte
    Yellow cell
  113. Cyano
    Blue
  114. Cyanotic
    Pertaining to blueness

    Cyanosis is associated with lack of oxygen in the blood.
  115. Erythro
    Red
  116. Erythrocyte
    Red cell

    An erythrocyte is a red blood cell.
  117. Melano
    Black
  118. Melanoma
    Black tumor

    Melanoma is malignancy that arises from melanocytes.
  119. Polio
    Gray; gray matter (of brain or spinal cord)
  120. Poliomyelitis
    Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
  121. Myel
    Bone marrow; spinal cord
  122. Acro
    Extremity
  123. Acrocyanosis
    Abnormal condition in which the extremities are blue
  124. Etio
    Cause
  125. Etiology
    Study of the cause of disease
  126. Idio
    Unknown, peculiar
  127. Idiopathic
    Pertaining to an unknown (cause of) disease
  128. Morpho
    Form, shape, structure
  129. Morphology
    Study of form, shape, or structure
  130. Patho
    Disease
  131. Pahologist
    Specialist in teh study of disease

    Pathologists examine tissues, cells, and body fluids for evidene of disease.
  132. Radio
    Radiation, x-ray; radius (lower arm bone on thumb side)
  133. Radiologist
    Specialist in the study of radiation

    Radiologists are physicians who employ imaging techniques for diagnosing and treating disease.
  134. Somato
    Body
  135. Somatic
    Pertaining to the body
  136. Sono
    Sound
  137. Sonography
    Process of recording sound; also called ultrasonography.

    Sonography employs ultrasound (inaudible sound) to produce images. It is a painless, noninvasive imaging technique that does not use x-rays.
  138. Viscero
    Internal organs
  139. Visceral
    Pertaining to internal organs
  140. Xero
    Dry
  141. Xerosis
    Abnormal condition of dryness

    Xerosis refers to abnormal dryness of the skin, mucous membranes, or conjuctiva.
  142. - genesis
    Forming, producing, origin
  143. Pathogenesis
    Origin of disease

    Pathogenesis refers to the origin or cause of an illness or abnormal condition.
  144. - gnosis
    Knowing
  145. Prognosis
    Knowing before

    Prognosis is the prediction of the course and end of a disease and the estimated chance of recovery.
  146. - gram
    Record, writing
  147. Arteriogram
    Record of and artery

    An arteriogram is an x-ray film of an artery taken after injection of a radiopaque contrast medium.
  148. - graph
    Instrument for recording
  149. Radiograph
    Instrument for recording x-rays
  150. - graphy
    Process of recording
  151. Arthrography
    Process of recording a joint

    Arthrography is an x-ray examination of a joint, such as the knee, shoulder, or elbow, usually with the use of a contract medium.
  152. - logist
    Specialist in the study of
  153. Dermatologist
    Specialist in the study of the skin
  154. - logy
    Study of
  155. Hematology
    Study of blood
  156. - meter
    Instrument for measuring
  157. Thermometer
    Instrument for measuring heat
  158. - metry
    Act of measuring
  159. Ventriculometry
    Act of measuring the ventricles
  160. - pathy
    Disease
  161. Gastropathy
    Disease of the stomach
  162. ab -
    From, away from
  163. Abduction
    Act of bringing away from (midline of the body)

    Abduction is the movement of a limb or body part away from the midline of the body.
  164. ad -
    Toward
  165. Adduction
    Act of brining toward (midline of the body)

    • Adduction is the movement of a limb toward the midline of the body.
  166. Hetero -
    Different
  167. Hetermorphous
    Different form or shape

    Heteromorphous refers to any deviation from a normal type or shape.
  168. Homeo -
    Same, alike
  169. Homeoplasia
    Formation of same (tissue)

    Homeoplasia is the formation of new tissue similar to that already existing in a part.
  170. Infra -
    Below, under
  171. Infracostal
    Pertaining to (the area) below the ribs
  172. Peri -
    Around
  173. Pericardial
    Pertaining to (the area) around the heart
  174. Super -
    Upper, above
  175. Superior
    Pertaining to the upper (area)
  176. Trans -
    Across, through
  177. Transabdominal
    Pertaining to (a direction) across or through the abdomen
  178. Ultra -
    Excess, beyond
  179. Ultrasonic
    • Pertaining to beyond (audible) sound
    • Ultrasound includes sound frequencies too high to be perceived by the human ear.
  180. Adhesion
    Abnormal fibrous band that holds our binds together tissues that are normally separated.

    Adhesions may occur within body cavities as a result of surgery.
  181. Analyte
    Substance analyzed or tested, gernerally by means of laboratory methods.

    In a glucose tolerance test, glucose is the analyte.
  182. Contrast medium
    Substance injected into the body, introduced via catheter, or swallowed to facilitate radiographic images of internal structures that otehrwise are difficult to visualize on x-ray films.
  183. Dehiscence
    Bursting open of a wound, especially a surgical abdominal wound.
  184. Febrile
    Feverish; pertaining to a fever.
  185. Homeostasis
    Relative constancy or balance in the internal environment of the body, maintained by processes of feedback and adjustment in response to external or internal changes.

    In homeostasis, such properties as temperature, acidity, and the concentrations of nutrients and wastes remain relatively constant.
  186. Inflammation
    Body defense against injury, infection, or allergy that is marked by redness, swelling, heat, pain, and sometimes, loss of function.

    Inflammation is one mechanism used by the body to protect against invasion by foreign organisms and to repair injured tissue.
  187. Morbid
    Disease; pertaining to a disease
  188. Nuclear medicine
    Branch of medicine concerned with the use of radioactive substances for diagnosis, treatment, and research.
  189. Radiology
    Medical specialty concerned with the use of electromagnetci radiation, ultrasound, and imaging techniques for diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury.
  190. Interventional radiology
    Radiological practice that employs fluoroscopy, CT, and ultrasound in nonsurgical treatment of various disorders

    Examples of interventional radiology include balloon angioplasty and cardiac catheterization.
  191. Therapeutic radiology
    Use of ionizing radiation in the treatment of cancer; alsoc called radiation oncology.
  192. Radionuclides
    Substances that emit radiation spontaneously; also called tracers.

    The quantity and duration of radioactive material used in these tests are safe for humans and should not have harmful effects.
  193. Radipharmaceutical
    Radionuclide attached to a protein, sugar, or toehr substance used to visualize an organ or area of the body that will be scanned.
  194. Scan
    Term used to describe a computerzied image by modality (such as CT, MRI, and nuclear imaging) or by structure (such as thyroid or bone).
  195. Sepsis
    Pathological state, usually febrile, resulting from the presence of microorganisms or their products in the bloodstream.
  196. Suppurative
    Producing or associated with generation of pus.
  197. Endoscopy
    Visual examination of a body cavity or canal using a specialized lighted insturment called an endoscope.

    Endoscopy is used for biopsy, surgery, aspirating fluids, and coagulating bleeding areas. The endoscope is usually named for the organ, cavity, or canal being examined, such as gastroscope sigmoidoscope. A camera and video recorder are commonly used during the procedure to provide a permanent record.
  198. Laparoscopy
    Visual examination of the organs of the pelvis and abdomen through very smal incisions in the abdominal wall.
  199. Thoracoscopy
    Examination of the lungs, pleura, and pleural space with a scope inserted through a small incision between the ribs.

    Thoracoscopy is an endoscopic procedure usually performed for lung biopsy, repairing perforations in the lungs, and diagnosing pleural disease.
  200. Complete blood count (CBC)
    Common blood test that enumerates red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets; measures hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells); estimates red cell volume; and sorts white blood cells into five subtypes with their percentages.

    CBC can be performed using a manual or automated method.
  201. Urinalysis (UA)
    Common urine screening test that evaluates the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine.

    Immediate UA can be performed with a dipstick test or the urine specimen can be sent to the laboratory for a full analysis.
  202. Computed tomography (CT)
    Imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles; formerly called computerized axial tomography.

    In a CT scan, the computer generates a detailed cross-sectional image that appears as a slice. Tumor masses, bone displacement, and accumulations of fluid may be detected. This technique may be used with or without a contrast medium.
  203. Doppler
    Ultrasound technique used to detect and measure blood-flow velocity and direction through the cardiac chambers, valves, and peripheral vessels by reflecting sound waves off moving blood cells.

    Doppler ultrasound is used to identify irregularities in blood flow cause by blood clots, venous insufficiancy, and arterial blockage.
  204. Fluoroscopy
    Radiographic technique in which x-rays are directed through the body to a fluorescent screen that displays continuous motion images of internal structures.

    Fluoroscopy is used to view the motion of organs, such as the digestive tract, heart, and joints, or to aid in the placement of catheters or other devices.
  205. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    Noninvasive imaging technique that uses radiowaves and a strong magnetic field rather than an x-ray beam to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images.

    MRI is used to diagnose a growing number of diseases because it provides superior soft tissue contrast, allows multiple plane views, and avoids the hazards of ionizing radiation. MRI commonly proves superior to CT scan for most central nervous system images, particularly those of the brainstem and spinal cord as well as the musculoskeletal and pevic areas. The procedure usually does not require a contrast medium.
  206. Positron emission tomography (PET)
    Scanning technique using computed tomography to record the positrons (positive charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical, that produces a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity in body tissues to determine the presence of disease.

    PET is particularly useful in scanning the brain and nervous system to diagnose disorders that involve abnormal tissue metabolism, such as schizophrenia, brain tumors, epilepsy, stroke, and Alzheimer disease as well as cardiac and pulmonary disorders.
  207. Radiography
    Imaging technique that uses x-rays passed thoruhg the body or area and captured on a film; also called x-ray.

    On the radiograph, dense material, such as bone, appears white, and softer meaterial, such as the stomach and liver, appears in shades of gray.
  208. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
    Radiological technique that integrates computed tomography (CT) and a radioactive material (tracer) injected into the bloodstream to visualize blood flow to tissues and organs.

    SPECT differs from a PET scan in that the tracer remains in teh blood stream rather than being absorbed by surrounding tissue. It is especially useful to visualize blood flow through arteries and veins in the brain.
  209. Tomography
    Radiographic technique that produces an image representing a detailed cross-section, or slice, of an area, tissue, or organ at a predetermined depth.

    Types of tomography include computed tomography (CT), poitron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).
  210. Ultrasonography (US)
    Imaging procedure using high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) that display the reflected "echoes" on a monitor; aloc called ultrasound, sonography, echo, and echography.

    US, unlike most other imaging methods, creates real-time moving images to view organs and function of organs in motion. A computer analyzes the reflected echoes and converts them into an image on a video monitor. Because this procedure does not use ionizing radiation (x-ray), it is used for visualizing fetuses as well as the neck, abdomen, pelvis, brain, and heart.
  211. Biopsy (bx)
    Representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis.
  212. Frozen section biopsy (FS)
    Ultra-thin slice of tissue cut from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination

    • FS is used primarily in oncological cases while the patient is still in the operating room. The evaluation by the pathologst helps determine if and how aggressively the surgeon will treat the patient.
  213. Needle biopsy
    Removal of a small tissue sample for examination using a hollow needle, usually attached to a syringe.
  214. Punch biopsy
    Removal of a small core of tissue using a hollow instrument (punch).

    An anesthetic and suturing are usually required for a punch bx, and minimal scarring is expected.
  215. Shave biopsy
    Removal of tissue using a surgical blade to shave elevated lesions.
  216. Ablation
    Removal of a part, pathway, or function by surgery, chemical destruction, electrocautery, freezing, or raido frequenc (RF).
  217. Anastomosis
    Surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another.
  218. Cauterize
    Destroy tissue by electricity, freezing, heat, or corrosive chemicals.
  219. Curettage
    Scraping of a body cavity with a spoon-shaped instrument called a curette (curet).
  220. Incision and drainage (I&D)
    Incision made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a wound or cavity.
  221. Laser surgery
    Surgical technique empling a devise that emits intense heat and power at close range to cut, burn, vaporize, or destroy tissues.
  222. Radical dissection
    Surgical removal of tissue in an extensive area surrounding the surgical site in an attempt to excise all tissue that may be malignant and decrease the chance of recurrence.

    • An example of a radical dissection procedure is radical mastectomy, in which the entire breast, surrounding lymph nodes, and sometimes adjacent muscles are removed.
  223. Resection
    Partial excision of a bone, organ, or other structure.
  224. ant
    anterior
  225. AP
    anteroposterior
  226. Bx, bx
    biopsy
  227. CBC
    complete blood count
  228. CT
    computed tomography
  229. DNA
    deoxyribonucleic acid
  230. DSA
    digital subtraction angiography
  231. Dx
    diagnosis
  232. FS
    Frozen section
  233. I&D
    incision and drainage
  234. LAT, lat
    lateral
  235. LLQ
    left lower quadrant
  236. LUQ
    left upper quadrant
  237. MRI
    magnetic resonance imaging
  238. PET
    positron emission tomography
  239. post
    posterior
  240. RF
    rheumatoid factor, radio frequency
  241. RLQ
    right lower quadrant
  242. RUQ
    right upper quadrant
  243. sono
    sonogram
  244. SPECT
    single photon emission computed tomography
  245. Sx
    symptom
  246. Tx
    treatment
  247. UA
    urinalysis
  248. U&L, U/L
    upper and lower
  249. US
    ultrasound ultrasonography

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