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Explaining and understanding human behavior. and analyzing and exploring the issues of our personal lives, society, and world.
Three Assumptions of the Sociological Perspective
- Individuals are, by their nature, social beings.
- Individuals are, for the most part, socially determined.
- Individuals create, sustain, and change the social forms within which they conduct.
The assumption that human behavior is explained exclusively by social factors (we are not exactly the way that everyone else sees us).
What does it mean to say that our individual identities are socially bestowed?
Our identities come from how we are social with other people
The Sociological Imagination
- Stimulated by a willingness to view the social world from the perspective of others.
- The ability to see the societal patterns that influence individuals, families, groups, and organizations.
- To develop, that person must be willing to question the structural arrangements that shape social behavior.
- When a person has this imagination, they begin to see solutions to social problems.
A set of ideas that explains a range of human behavior and a variety of social and societal events (Micro, Meso, Macro).
An adherence that strengthens the social power of sociologists.
Four sources of data
- Survey research
- Existing data
a survey of a population made by using only a portion of the population
An attitude, behavior, or condition that can vary in magnitude and significance from case to case
the experimental factor that is manipulated
the behavior or mental process that is being measured
small group, social psychology
Organizations, churches and company
Large groups, nations, cities, and states ect.
the ways in which human conduct becomes socially organized
the structure of behavior in groups of society
the shared beliefs of group members that unite them and guide their behavior
a collection of individuals who happen to be at the same place at the same time
two types of social groups
primary and secondary
a group of members that are the most intimately involved with each other
a group that is larger then primary groups and is more impersonal
the behavior of a person affects the behavior of another person
one behavior is oriented toward others
a case of enduring social interaction
rules that specify appropriate and inappropiate behaviors in groups
how we respond to violations of norms (expectations). negative sanction is like getting a parking ticket
the position that we occupy in each organization that we are a part of
status that is achieve be personal effort
status that you are born with
normative expectations that are attached to a status
norms of 2 or more statuses are difficult to satisfy at the same time
a person has difficulty achieving expectations in a single status
a hierarchical formal organization characterized by rationality and efficiency
the increasing bureaucratization in social life
the iron cage of rationality
a bureaucracy that can be de humanizing
5 ways groups affect us (power of social group)
- probability of suicide
- health and life
3 types of suicide
occurs when an individual has minimal ties to a social group
occurs when a group is highly cohesive and the member is oriented
occurs in a situation of raid change
the largest social organization to which people owe their allegiance. or an aggregate of people united by a common culture
a system that helps improve society and its problems
social scientific analysis
social science is the field of scholarship that studies society