A&P Sept. 2 notes
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What is Anatomy
- The study of the form and arrangement of body parts
- - anatomy is concret, it can be seen, felt and examined closely
What is Physiology
- The study of the fucntions of Anatomy,
- - How the body parts work and carry out their life- sustaining activites
Levels of Organization
- Chemical Level
- Cellular Level
- Tissue Level
- Organ Level
- Organ system Level
- Organismal Level
What is the Chemical Level
Atoms combine to form molecules
What is the Cellular Level
cells are made up of molecules
what is the tissue level
tissues consist of similar types of cells
what is the organ level
organs are made up of different types of tissues
what is the organ system level
organ system consists of different organs that work together closely
what is the organismal level
the human organisms is made up of many organ systems
What are the 11 Organ systems
- Male/Female Reproductive
What does the Integumentary system do?
forms the external body covering and protects deeper tissues from injury. Synthesizes vitamin D and houses cutaneous recepts like pain and pressure, also sweat and oil glands
What does the Skeletal system do?
protects and supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. blood cells are formed within the bones. bones store minerals
What does the Muscular system do?
allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion and facial expression. maintains posture and produces heat
what does the Nevous system do?
as the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands
What does the Endocrine system do?
Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (Metabolism) by body cells
What does the Cardiovascular system do?
Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, ect. the heart pumps the blood
What does the Lymphatic/ Immunity system do?
picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells involved in immunity. the immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body
What does the Respiratory system do?
- Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. the gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs in the lungs.
- Helps regulate pH.
What does the Digestive system do?
breaks down food into absorbable units that enters the blood for distribution to body cells. indigestible food stuffs are eliminated by feces
What does the Urinary/ Renal system do?
Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.
What does Male/Female reproduction system
overal function is production of offspring.
7.35 and Lower in terms of pH levels is
7.45 and Higher in terms of pH levels is
What makes CO2
Cells do and they always are making it
The more C02 (Waste) + H20 (Blood) = More H2C03 which in turns the pH balance
C02+H20 <----> H2C03 <--> H+
is a _____
Reversable reaction for cellular respiration
Higher hydrogen level _____pH
Lower hydrogen level_______pH
getting rid of to much CO2 causing lower hydrogen levels causing the pH level to become
Maintaing life involves
there is always constant movements in the body the body does not stop moving
Responsiveness is ....
is the ability to sense changes in the enviroment and to respond to them
is an increase in size of a body part or the organism
chemical reaction that occurs in the body
the breaking down of substances into their simpler building blocks
the syntheszing of more complex cellular structures from simpler substances
Cellular respiration is
the use of the nutrients that were syntheszised and oxygen to produce ATP
occurs at the cellular and the organismsmal level
the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal condition even though the outside world changes continuously
Mechanisms work via....
Feedback systems include
- afferent pathway to control center
- control center
- efferent pathway
change impacts balance point
able to detect change
sends message through the afferent pathway
control center is
- what recieves, recognizes and sneds messages to effector
- the output is sent along efferent pathway to effector
of effector, feeds back to reduce the effect of the stimulus and returns variable to homeostatic level
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