A&P Sept. 2 notes

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A&P Sept. 2 notes
2011-09-22 01:33:21
Sept notes

Sept 2 notes
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  1. What is Anatomy
    • The study of the form and arrangement of body parts
    • - anatomy is concret, it can be seen, felt and examined closely
  2. What is Physiology
    • The study of the fucntions of Anatomy,
    • - How the body parts work and carry out their life- sustaining activites
  3. Levels of Organization
    • Chemical Level
    • Cellular Level
    • Tissue Level
    • Organ Level
    • Organ system Level
    • Organismal Level
  4. What is the Chemical Level
    Atoms combine to form molecules
  5. What is the Cellular Level
    cells are made up of molecules
  6. what is the tissue level
    tissues consist of similar types of cells
  7. what is the organ level
    organs are made up of different types of tissues
  8. what is the organ system level
    organ system consists of different organs that work together closely
  9. what is the organismal level
    the human organisms is made up of many organ systems
  10. What are the 11 Organ systems
    • Integumentary
    • Skeletal
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
    • Endocrine
    • Cardiovascular
    • Lymphatic
    • Respirtory
    • Digestive
    • Urinary
    • Male/Female Reproductive
  11. What does the Integumentary system do?
    forms the external body covering and protects deeper tissues from injury. Synthesizes vitamin D and houses cutaneous recepts like pain and pressure, also sweat and oil glands
  12. What does the Skeletal system do?
    protects and supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. blood cells are formed within the bones. bones store minerals
  13. What does the Muscular system do?
    allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion and facial expression. maintains posture and produces heat
  14. what does the Nevous system do?
    as the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands
  15. What does the Endocrine system do?
    Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (Metabolism) by body cells
  16. What does the Cardiovascular system do?
    Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, ect. the heart pumps the blood
  17. What does the Lymphatic/ Immunity system do?
    picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells involved in immunity. the immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body
  18. What does the Respiratory system do?
    • Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. the gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs in the lungs.
    • Helps regulate pH.
  19. What does the Digestive system do?
    breaks down food into absorbable units that enters the blood for distribution to body cells. indigestible food stuffs are eliminated by feces
  20. What does the Urinary/ Renal system do?
    Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.
  21. What does Male/Female reproduction system
    overal function is production of offspring.
  22. 7.35 and Lower in terms of pH levels is
  23. 7.45 and Higher in terms of pH levels is
  24. What makes CO2
    Cells do and they always are making it
  25. H2CO3 is
    Carbonic Acid
  26. The more C02 (Waste) + H20 (Blood) = More H2C03 which in turns the pH balance
    More acidic
  27. C02+H20 <----> H2C03 <--> H+
    is a _____
    Reversable reaction for cellular respiration
  28. Higher hydrogen level _____pH
  29. Lower hydrogen level_______pH
  30. getting rid of to much CO2 causing lower hydrogen levels causing the pH level to become
  31. Maintaing life involves
    • Movement
    • Responsivness
    • Growth
    • Metabolism/Catoblosm/Anabolism
    • Reprodcution
    • Homeostasis
  32. Movement is....
    there is always constant movements in the body the body does not stop moving
  33. Responsiveness is ....
    is the ability to sense changes in the enviroment and to respond to them
  34. Growth is..
    is an increase in size of a body part or the organism
  35. Metabolism is
    chemical reaction that occurs in the body
  36. Catabolism is
    the breaking down of substances into their simpler building blocks
  37. Anabolism is
    the syntheszing of more complex cellular structures from simpler substances
  38. Cellular respiration is
    the use of the nutrients that were syntheszised and oxygen to produce ATP
  39. Reproduction is
    occurs at the cellular and the organismsmal level
  40. Homeostasis is
    the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal condition even though the outside world changes continuously
  41. Mechanisms work via....
    feedback systems
  42. Feedback systems include
    • Stimulus
    • receptor
    • input
    • afferent pathway to control center
    • control center
    • efferent pathway
    • response
  43. Stimulus is
    change impacts balance point
  44. receptor is
    able to detect change
  45. input is
    sends message through the afferent pathway
  46. control center is
    • what recieves, recognizes and sneds messages to effector
    • the output is sent along efferent pathway to effector
  47. Response is
    of effector, feeds back to reduce the effect of the stimulus and returns variable to homeostatic level