Muscle tissue

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mamichula
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103534
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Muscle tissue
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2011-09-22 04:16:36
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anatomy
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  1. all muscle cells are called
    Muscle fiber
  2. the three types of mucsle are
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
    • smooth
  3. muscles that move bones and are under concious control are called
    skeletal muscles
  4. muscles that cannot be conciously controlled are called
    smooth muscles
  5. the connective tissue around each muscle fiber is the
    endomysium
  6. the layer around each fascicle is the
    perimysium
  7. the layer around the whole muscle is the
    epimysium
  8. connects to a bone
    tendon
  9. a tendon is a lot like a ___ which is a broad sheet of connective tissue
    ligaments
  10. all types of muscles tissue produce movement; skeletal muscle also maintains ___ and stabilizes___
    posture and stabilizes joints
  11. the plasma membrane of muscle cells is called the
    sarcolemma
  12. this with alternating A and I bands, make the cells look striated
    sarcomere
  13. the contractile units are called
    sarcomere
  14. the threadlike proteins that cause contration are the thick or ____ and the thin or _____
    myosin filaments ; actin filaments
  15. this is epecialized endoplasmic reticulum
    sarcoplasmic reticulum
  16. sarcoplasmic reticulum is to store and release _____ to trigger contraction
    calcium
  17. one neuron and all the skeletal muscle cells it stimulates makes up one
    motor unit
  18. the position on the muscle cell where the nerve fiber connects is called the
    neuromuscular junction
  19. the gap between the nerve ending and the muscle cell is the
    synaptic cleft
  20. when the nerve impulse reaches the nerve ending, what chemical is released
    acetylcholine ( ACH )
  21. ACH chemical binds to the muscle cell membrane causing a temporary rush of ____ into the muscle cell
    calcium
  22. the electrical current generated along the muscle cell's membrane is called an ___ and is the signal to trigger contration
    action potential
  23. a single contration is called a
    twitch
  24. this accurred when contration is prolonged, fused or complete
    myotoniatonus
  25. energy is provided for muscle contration by ATP and its regeneration by direct phosphorylation by CP or______
    this can last about 20 seconds
    creative phosphate
  26. most energy at rest and with light exercise is provided by _______ usin glucose and other nutrient fuels such as fatty acids
    cellular respiration
  27. with intense exercise _________ and lastic acid formation accur. this leads to fatigue and a burning sensation in the muscles, along with oxigen debt, but quickly goes away when activity slows down.
    anaerobic respiration
  28. muscle concentration in which the muscle shortens are called
    concentric contractions
  29. if the muscle can't shorten because the load is too heavy for example, the contraction is called
    eccentric contraction
  30. the end that is stationary when a muscle contracts is the ____ and the end that moves is the _____
    origin; insertion
  31. bending at the joint is called
    flexing
  32. straightening is
    extensor muscle
  33. the muscle that is most involved in any specific action is called the
    primary mover
  34. muscles that oppose the action are __ and muscle that help are
    antagonists and agonists
  35. this is the property of muscle tha gives the ability to stretch without damage
    extensibility
  36. in an isometric contraction the muscle develops tension but does not
    change its length
  37. this is a band of connective tissue that sorrounds muscles
    epimysium
  38. when connective tissue extends as a broad flat layer thetendon is referred to as
    synaptic end bulbs
  39. these are the contractile organelles of the muscle fiber
    myofibrils
  40. this part of the skeletal muscle cell releases calcium when stimulated by the T tibules
    terminal system
  41. the sarcoplasmic reticulum is used for storing
    calcium
  42. what regulatory proteins can be found on an actin molecule
    tropomyosin and troponin
  43. in the sliding filament mechanism the thin filament is being pulled towards the
    M line
  44. this consists of a somatic motor neuron plus all the skeletal muscle fibers it stimulates
    motor unit
  45. most muscle cross at least one
    joint
  46. the attachment of a muscle tendon to the stationary bone is called the _____
    origin
  47. the attachment of the muscle other tendon to the movable bone is called
    insertion
  48. a lever is acted on at two different forces which are
    effort and load
  49. motion will occur in a muscle when the ___ supplied exceeds the ______
    effort; load
  50. what is another name for a prime mover
    catalyst
  51. the signal to excite a muscle cell must cross the neuromuscular junction by the diffusion of acetycholine across the
    synaptic cleft
  52. major funtion of muscle tissue
    • Through sustained contraction or alternating contraction and relaxation,muscular tissue has four key functions:
    • producing bodymovements,
    • stabilizing body positions,
    • storing and moving substances within the body,
    • and generating heat.
  53. skeletal muscle tissue
    Skeletal muscle, which is attached to bones by tendons, is associated with the body's voluntary movements. Skeletal muscle is striated muscle. Unlike cardiac muscle, the cells are not branched.

    is so named because most skeletal musclesmove bones of the skeleton. (A few skeletal muscles attach toand move the skin or other skeletal muscles.) Skeletal muscle tissueis striated: Alternating light and dark protein bands (striations) areseen when the tissue is examined with a microscope (see Table 4.9).Skeletal muscle tissue works mainly in a voluntary manner. Its activitycan be consciously controlled by neurons (nerve cells) that arepart of the somatic (voluntary) division of the nervous system. (Figure12.10 depicts the divisions of the nervous system.) Most skeletalmuscles also are controlled subconsciously to some extent. For example,your diaphragm continues to alternately contract and relaxwithout conscious control so that you don’t stop breathing. Also,you do not need to consciously think about contracting the skeletalmuscles that maintain your posture or stabilize body positions.
  54. Cardiac muscle
    Cardiac muscle is so named because it is found in the heart. Cells are joined to one another by intercalated discs which allow the synchronization of the heart beat. Cardiac muscle is branched, striated muscle.

    Only the heart contains cardiac muscle tissue, which formsmost of the heart wall. Cardiac muscle is also striated, but its actionis involuntary. The alternating contraction and relaxation ofthe heart is not consciously controlled. Rather, the heart beats becauseit has a pacemaker that initiates each contraction. Thisbuilt-in rhythm is termed autorhythmicity (aw-to¯-rith-MISS-ite¯). Several hormones and neurotransmitters can adjust heart rateby speeding or slowing the pacemaker.
  55. smooth muscle
    is located in the walls of hollow internalstructures, such as blood vessels, airways, and most organs inthe abdominopelvic cavity. It is also found in the skin, attached tohair follicles. Under a microscope, this tissue lacks the striationsof skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue. For this reason, it looks nonstriated,which is why it is referred to as smooth. The action ofsmooth muscle is usually involuntary, and some smooth muscletissue, such as the muscles that propel food through your gastrointestinaltract, has autorhythmicity. Both cardiac muscle andsmooth muscle are regulated by neurons that are part of the autonomic(involuntary) division of the nervous system and by hormonesreleased by endocrine glands.
  56. Properties of Muscular tissue has four special properties that enable it to functionand contribute to homeostasis:
    • Electrical excitability
    • Contractility
    • extensibility
    • elasticity
  57. elasticity
    is the ability of muscular tissue toreturn to its original length and shape after contraction orextension.
  58. extensibility
    is the ability of musculartissue to stretch, within limits, without being damaged.
  59. contractility
    is the ability of muscular tissueto contract forcefully when stimulated by an action potential
  60. electrical excitability
    is theability to respond to certain stimuli by producing electricalsignals called action potentials (impulses).
  61. what are the bands?
    Z discs Narrow, plate-shaped regions of dense material that separate onesarcomere from the next.

    A band Dark, middle part of sarcomere that extends entire length of thickfilaments and includes those parts of thin filaments that overlapthick filaments.

    I band Lighter, less dense area of sarcomere that contains remainder ofthin filaments but no thick filaments. A Z disc passes throughcenter of each I band.

    H zone Narrow region in center of each A band that contains thickfilaments but no thin filaments.

    M line Region in center of H zone that contains proteins that hold thickfilaments together at center of sarcomere.
  62. what are Z discs
    Narrow, plate-shaped regions of dense material that separate onesarcomere from the next.
  63. what are A band
    band Dark, middle part of sarcomere that extends entire length of thickfilaments and includes those parts of thin filaments that overlapthick filaments.
  64. what are I band
    band Lighter, less dense area of sarcomere that contains remainder ofthin filaments but no thick filaments. A Z disc passes throughcenter of each I band.
  65. what is the H zone
    zone Narrow region in center of each A band that contains thickfilaments but no thin filaments.
  66. what are M lines
    line Region in center of H zone that contains proteins that hold thickfilaments together at center of sarcomere.
  67. The hip abductor muscles are a group of four muscles located in the buttocks region on both sides of the body. Their names are:
    1) Gluteus Maximus, 2) Gluteus Medius, 3) Gluteus Minimus, and 4) Tensor Fascia Lata.
  68. The contraction cycle consistsof four stepsThe contraction cycle consistsof four steps
    • ATP hydrolysis
    • attachment of myosin to actin to form cross-bridges
    • power stroke
    • detachment of myosin from actin
  69. 3 ways muscle produce ATP
    • ATP-PC
    • latic acid
    • aerobic

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