A&P Sept 9th Notes

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A&P Sept 9th Notes
2011-09-22 02:50:41
Sept 9th Notes

A&P Sept 9th Notes
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  1. Anatomical position is
    Standard for directional terms
  2. Upper part of and structure
  3. away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
  4. terms used mostly in appendages
  5. is a vertical plane that divides, the body into right and left planes
    saggital plane
  6. a sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline of the body
    median (midsagittal plane)
  7. sagittal plane offset from the midline
    parasagittal plane
  8. like sagittal planes, lie vertically. divides the body into anterior and posterior parts. also called coronal plane
    frontal plane
  9. runs horizontally from right to left dividing the body into superior and inferior parts, also called a cross section
    transverse (horizontal plane)
  10. are cuts made diagonally between the horizontal and the vertical planes
    oblique sections
  11. has two major subdivisions the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity
    ventral body cavity
  12. Houses internal organs collectively called the viscer or visceral organs
    ventral body cavity
  13. superior subdivision of the ventral body cavity
    thoracic cavity
  14. inferior to of the ventral body cavities
    abdominopelvic cavity
  15. the pelvic brim seperates the
    pelvic and abdominal cavity
  16. the walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs, it contains are covered by a thin double layered membrane called
    serosa or serous membrane
  17. covers organs
    visceral serosa
  18. defines the extend of the cell
    plasma membrane
  19. fluid within cells
    intracellular fluid
  20. fluid outside the cells
    extracellular fluid
  21. depicts the plasma membrane as an exceedingly thin structure composed of a double layer or bilayer of lipid molecules with protein molecules plugged into or dispersed in it
    fluid mosaic model
  22. the proteins float in the fluid lipid bilayer, form a constantly changing ---- pattern
    fluid mosaic model
  23. change always shifting not concrete, like a part of cholesterol can be stuck to a different place. cells are static, always changing, coming and going as they please
    example of...
    fluid mosaic model
  24. membrane lipids are....
    • phophlipids
    • glycolipids
    • cholesterol
    • glycocalyx
    • glycoproteins
  25. the lipid bilayer forms the basic fabric of the membrane, it is constructed largely of ------- with smaller amounts of cholesterol and glycolipids.
  26. each lollipop-shaped phospholipid molecule has a polar head that is charged and is
  27. the main constitute of both intracellular and extracellular fluids
  28. each phospholipid tail is uncharged and nonpolar that is made of two fatty acid chains is
  29. lipids with attached sugar groups
  30. found only on the outer plasma membrane surface and account for 5% of the total membrane lipid
  31. the sugar group of a glycolipid makes the end of the molecule ---- whereas the fatty acid tails are ------
  32. has a polar region and nonpolar region. it wedges its platelike hydrocarbon rings between the phospholipid tails, stabilizing the membrane while increasing the mobility of the phospholipid and the fluidity of the membrane
  33. used to describe the fuzzy, sticky, carbohydrate- rich area at the cell surface
  34. Sugar coated cells
  35. the ---- clings to each cells surface is enriched both by glycolipids and by glycoproteins secreted by the cell
  36. provides highly specific biological markers by which approaching cells recognize each other
  37. the glycocalyx that clings to each cells surface is enriched both by flycolipids and ---- secreted by the cell
  38. ---- is a rich nutritious soup containing amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, vitamins, hormones, neurotransmitters, salts, and waste products
    extracellular fluid
  39. substances can move through the plasma membrane in two ways
    passive/ active transport
  40. substances cross the membrane without any energy input from the cell
    passive transport
  41. transport that uses ATP
    Active Transport
  42. Transport that moves ---- the concentration gradient
  43. is the tendency of molecules or ions to move from an area where they are in higher concentration to an area where they are in lower concentration, that is down or along their concentration gradient
  44. has to have a channel to pass threw like water into the cell
    Facillitated diffusion
  45. diffusion of a solvent such as water through a selectively permeable membrane
  46. water moves freely and reversibly through water specific channels constructued by transmembrane protein called
  47. through a higher to lower concentration gradient
  48. the ability of a solution to change the shape or tone of cells by altering their internal water volume
  49. solutions with the same concentration of nonpenetrating solutes
  50. brings materials into the cell, grabs molecules wraps around and ingests it
  51. secretion or ejection of substance from the cell. the substance is enclosed in a membranous vesicle, which fuses with the plasma membrane and ruptures; releasing the substance to the exterior
  52. everything between the nuclear membrane and the plasma membrane
  53. true karyon nucleus
    eukaryotic cells
  54. bacteria, no defined area where they keep chromosomes, dont have a bunch of organelles,
    prokaryotic cells
  55. is a molecule soup, intercellular fluid