A&P Sept 16th

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  1. everything between nuclear membrane and the plasma membrane
  2. specialized cellular compartments, each performing its own job to maintain the life of the cell
  3. thread like membranous organelles
  4. neurons are rich in this
  5. metabolites that are broken down and oxidized, some of the energy released is captured and used to attach phophate groupds to ADP moecules to form ATP this is called
    cellular respiration because it requires oxygen
  6. C6 H12 O2 + O2 -> CO2+ H2O + E is a formula of
    oxidation of molecules for cellular respiration
  7. ATP stands for
    adenosine triphosphate
  8. mitochondria contains its own DNA True or False
  9. 70S is Found in --
    80S is Found in---
    • 70S bacteria
    • 80S DNA
  10. If
    you want to make some hemoglobin to carry oxygen in your blood, the proper
    sequence for protein synthesis in our cells is
    • DNA- Transcription-->
    • mRNA-Translation -->
    • Protein
  11. site of protein synthesis
  12. have the ability to switch back and forth between two functions, attching to and detaching from the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum according to the types of proteins they are making at a given time
  13. only found in the mitochondria
  14. Network within the cytoplasm
    endoplasmic reticulum
  15. this process forms on the ---- :

    Proteins assembled on these ribosomes threat
    their way into the fluid filled interior of the ER cisternae, where various
    fates await them, also called maturation where they take “Proper shape”.
    Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  16. protein synthesis --> maturation --> transport happens in what organelle
    Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  17. Enzymes needed to catalyze lipid synthesis have their active sites on the external face of the ---
    ER membrane
  18. its enzymes play no role in protein synthesis, instead they catalyze reactions
    smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  19. consists of stacked and flattened membranous sac, shaped like hollow dinner plates.
    golgi apparatus
  20. traffic director for cellular proteins
    golgi apparatus
  21. Major functions of this organelles
    - package proteins, and lipids made at the rough ER
    golgi apparatus
  22. In the golgi apparatus this happens: some sugar groups are trimmed while others are added and in some cases phosphate groups are added. this is called
  23. this happens in what organelle: various proteins are tagged for delievery to a specific address, sorted and packaged in at least three types of vesicles that bud from the shipping side of the ----
    golgi apparatus
  24. this happens in what organelle: secretory vesicles pinch off from the transface "shipping surface" which migrates to the plasma membrane and discharge their conent from the cell by exocytosis
    golgi apparatus
  25. produces lysosomes
    golgi apparatus
  26. contain activated digestive enzymes
  27. large and abundant within phagocytes, the cells that dispose of invading bacteria and cell debris
  28. means chopping things into smaller pieces
    acid hydrolases
  29. lysosomes work best in acid conditions and so are called
    acid hydrolases
  30. contains H+ (proton) pumps which are ATPases that gather hydrogen ions from the surrounding cytosol to maintain the organelles acid pH.
    Lysosomal membrane
  31. retains the dangerous acid hydrolases while permitting the final products of digestion to escape so that they can be used by the cell or excreted.
    lysosomal membrane
  32. these functions occur in what organelle:
    digesting particles taken in by endocytosis
    degrading worn-out or nonfunctioning organelles
    performing metabolic functions
    breaking down nonuseful tissues
    breaking down bones to release calcium
  33. polysaccharides which could contain amylase that can break down the --- into monosaccharides
  34. an enzyme found chiefly in saliva and pancreatic fluid that converts starch and glycogen into simple sugars
  35. lipids-triglycerides, can contain --- that can break down triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids
  36. a pancreatic enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of fats to fatty acids and glycerol or other alcohols
  37. protein- amino acids are in a long chain, using --- can help break them down into smaller pieces
  38. an enzymes that breaks down proteins
  39. a compound consisting of two or more amino acids linked in a chain
  40. nucleic acids- DNA and RNA have long polymers (ATGU) when exposed into --- can be turned into nucleotides.
  41. an enzymes that cleaves the chains of nucleotides in nucleic acids into small units
  42. hihgly powerful enzymes, oxidase and catalase
  43. significant amount of fatty acid oxidation also occurs in --- hence playing a role in energy metabolism
  44. uses molecular oxygen to detoxify harmful substance
  45. most important function of --- is to neutralize dangerous free radicals which are higly reactive chemicals with unpaired electrons that can scamble the structure of biological molecules
  46. converts free radicals to hydrogen peroxide which is reactive and dangerous but it converted to water by catalase enzymes
  47. elaborate network of rods running through the cytosol, acts as a cells bones, muslces, and ligaments, by supporting the cellular structures and providing the machinery to generate various cell movements
  48. three types of rods
    • microfilaments
    • intermediate filaments
    • microtubules
  49. thinnest elements of the cytoskeleton are strands of a protein "Actin"
  50. fairly dense cross-linked network of microfilaments called the terminal web
  51. terminal web is attach to the cytoplasmic side, it strengthens the cell surface and resists compression
  52. actin filaments interact with another protein unconventional myosin to generate contractile forces in a cell, this also forms the cleavage furrow that pinches on ecell into two during cell divison
  53. helps in endocytosis, and exocytosis except in muscle cells
  54. constructed like woven ropes, most stable and permanent of the cytoskeletal elements and have high tensile strength
    intermediate filaments
  55. tough insoluble protein fibers
    intermediate filaments
  56. do not bind to ATP or serve as track for molecular motors to transport intercellular substances
    intermediate filaments
  57. they attach to desmosomes and their main job is to act as inter guid-wires to resist pulling forces exerted on the cell
    intermediate filaments
  58. element with the largest diameter, are hollow tubes made of spherical subunits called tubulins
  59. radiate from a small region of cytoplasm near the nucleus called the centrosome
  60. grow out, disassemble, reassemble repeatedly
  61. stiff but bendable microtubules determine the overal shape of the cell as well as the distribution of cellular organelles
  62. mitochondira, lysosomes, and secretory vesicles attach to the microtubules and continually move alone them with the use of tiny proteins called motor proteins or motor moelcules
  63. microtubules are anchored at one end in the region near the nucleus called the --- or cell center
  64. form the bases of cilia and flagella
  65. whip like, motile cellular extensions that occur in large number on the exposed surface of certain cells
  66. when projections formed by the centrioles are longer than cilia they are called
  67. 9+2 pattern describes
  68. --- doublet or pairs of microtubules encircling -- central pair
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A&P Sept 16th

A&P Sept 16th
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