PHILO 25 CHAPTER 1 KEY TERMS

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IO
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103574
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PHILO 25 CHAPTER 1 KEY TERMS
Updated:
2011-09-22 10:08:39
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Philo 25 Rogacs PCC
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Vocab on chapter one for Critical Thinking 10ed moore/parker
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  1. Claim
    When a belief (judgment, opinion) is asserted in a declarative sentence, the result is a claim or statement.
  2. Objective claim vs. subjective claim
    An objective claim is true or false regardless of whether people think it is true or false. Claims that lack this property are said to be subjective.
  3. “Factual claim”
    An objective claim. Saying that a claim is “factual” is not the same as saying it is true. A factual claim is simply a claim whose truth does not depend on our thinking it is true.
  4. Moral subjectivism
    Moral subjectivism is the idea that all judgments and claims that ascribe a moral property to something are subjective. “There is nothing either good or bad but that thinking makes it so.”Moral subjectivism is the idea that all judgments and claims that ascribe a moral property to something are subjective. “There is nothing either good or bad but that thinking makes it so.”
  5. Issue
    A question.
  6. Argument
    An argument consists of two parts—one part of which (the premise or premises) is intended to provide a reason for accepting the other part (the conclusion).
  7. Cognitive bias
    a feature of human psychology that skews belief formation.
  8. Belief bias
    Evaluating reasoning by how believable its conclusion is.
  9. Availability heuristic
    Assigning a probability to an event based on how easily or frequently it is thought of.
  10. False consensus effect
    Assuming our opinions and those held by people around us are shared by society at large.
  11. Bandwagon effect
    The tendency to align our beliefs with those of other people.
  12. Negativity bias
    Attaching more weight to negative information than to positive information.
  13. Loss aversion
    Being more strongly motivated to avoid a loss than to accrue a gain.
  14. In-group bias
    A set of cognitive biases that make us view people who belong to our group differently from people who don’t.
  15. Fundamental attribution error
    Understanding the behavior of others differently from how we understand our own behavior or that of other people in our group.
  16. Obedience to authority
    A tendency to comply with instructions from an authority.
  17. Overconfidence effect
    A cognitive bias that leads us to overestimate what percentage of our answers on a subject are correct.
  18. Better-than-average illusion
    A self-deception cognitive bias that leads us to overestimate our own abilities relative to those of others.
  19. Truth
    The question, What is Truth, has no universally accepted answer, and we don’t try to answer it here. In this book we use the concept in a commonsense way: A claim is true if it is free from error.
  20. Knowledge
    For our purposes, if you believe something is so, have an argument that is beyond a reasonable doubt that it is so, and have no reason to think you are mistaken, you can claim you know it is so.

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