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- (1) the semispinalis
- (2) multifidus
- (3) rotators
- (4) interspinous and intertransverse muscles the transverse processes of adjacent vertebrae.
- Fibrocartilagenous intervertebral discs form cartilagenous joints between adjacent vertebral bodies designed for weight bearing & strength
- outer, tough anulus fibrosus (which provides strength)
- inner, gelatinous nucleus pulposus (which provides for shock absorption during weight bearing).
anterior longitudinal ligament
runs on the anterior surface of vertebral bodies; prevents hyperextension of vert. column
posterior longitudinal ligament
runs on the posterior surface of vertebral bodies; prevents hyperflexion of vert. column
- unites the laminae of adjacent vertebrae; its elastic nature helps to preserve the curvatures of the vertebral column
- interspinous ligament
- runs between the spinous processes of adjacent vertebrae
runs over the top of spinous processes of adjacent vertebrae. It helps to stabilize the vertebral column along with the interspinous ligament.
The space between the arachnoid mater and pia mater is called the which contains cerebrospinal fluid which provides a protective cushion for the spinal cord.
The denticulate ligament is formed of pia mater. It is a serrated, tooth-like ligament extending between the dorsal & ventral roots and helps anchor the spinal cord within the dural sac.
- a ligament-like structure formed of pia mater which extends inferiorly from the conus medullaris to eventually anchor to the coccyx helping to provide stability for the spinal cord.
- Note that the dural sac and subarachnoid space ends opposite the 2nd sacral vertebra (S2).
spinal cord ends (which ends at L2 vertebral level). , it tapers down to form a cone-like structure
Surrounding conus medullaris, are dorsal and ventral roots that are proceeding inferiorly. These roots look like a �horse�s tail�
Spinal cord blood
- 1 anterior spinal artery and 2 posterior spinal arteries.
- It is drained by 3 anterior and 3 posterior spinal veins
Internal Vertebral Venous Plexus
the veins draining the spinal cord and vertebrae form the "internal vertebral venous plexus" which is a network of valveless veins which is continuous with the cranial dural venous sinuses within the skull. This system provides a pathway for infection between the head and lower parts of the body.