Head and Neck - Organization and Triangles of Neck

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  1. What muscle is contained within the superficial fascia?
    Platysma Muscle
  2. Where does the Platysma muscle originate and insert
    • Origin: Skin over pectoralis major and deltoid muscles
    • Insertion: Mandible and skin of lower part of the face
  3. What nerve innervates the Platysma muscle?
    Cervical Branch of the Facial nerve (CN VII)
  4. Function of the Platysma?
    • Tense the skin of the neck
    • Draw corners of mouth downward
  5. What are the 4 main fascias within the deep cervical fascia?
    • 1. Investing Fascia
    • 2. Prevertebral Fascia
    • 3. Visceral Fascia
    • 4. Corotid Sheath
  6. What does the investing fascia attach to superiorly and inferiorly?
    • Superiorly: Superior nuchal line of occpital bone and mastoid process
    • Inferiorly: Manubrium, clavicle and spine of scapula
  7. What muscles are enclosed within the investing fascia?
    • Sternocleidomastoid
    • Trapezius
  8. What does the prevertebral fascia enclose?
    • Vertebral Column
    • Associated Musculature
  9. What is the axillary sheath made from?
    From an extension of the prevertebral fascia drawn into the axilla
  10. What are the 2 fascias contained within the visceral fascia?
    • Pretracheal
    • Buccopharyngeal
  11. What does the pretracheal fascia surround?
    • Thyroid Gland
    • Trachea
    • Esophagus
  12. What does the buccopharyngeal fascia surround?
    • Pharynx
    • Buccinator Muscle
  13. Where is the retropharyngeal space located and its function?
    • Location: Between the buccopharyngeal fascia and prevertebral fascia
    • Function: Space that accommodates movements of pharynx in swollowing
  14. What does the corotid sheath contain?
    • Common Corotid A.
    • Internal Carotid A.
    • Inernal Jugular V.
    • Vagus nerve (X)
  15. What are the 4 cutaneous branches of the Cervical Plexus?
    • Lesser Occipital Nerve
    • Great Aurical Nerve
    • Transverse Cervical Nerve
    • Supraclavicular Nerve
  16. Where does the lesser occipital nerve innervate and what is it made of?
    • Innervates: Skin and scalp posterior to ear
    • Made of: C2 and C3
  17. Where does the greater aurical nerve innervate and what is it made of?
    • Innervates: Skin over mastoid process, lower part of auricle and parotid gland
    • Made of: C2 and C3
  18. What does the transerve cervical nerve innervate and what is it made of?
    • Innervates: Skin of anterior part of neck
    • Made of: C2 and C3
  19. What does the supraclavicular nerve innervate and what is it made of?
    • Innervates: Skin over the clavicle and inferior to 2nd rib
    • Made of: C3 and C4
  20. What contributions to the accessory nerve are seen in the cervical plexus and where do they go?
    • Function of both: Proprioceptive Sensory
    • Sternocleidomastoid Muscle: C2 and C3
    • Trapezius Muscle: C3 and C4
  21. Name the 4 motor innervations found in the ansa cervicalis
    • Inferior Omohyoid
    • Superior Omohyoid
    • Sternothyroid
    • Sternohyoid
  22. What innervates the Geniohyoid and Thyrohyoid?
    C1 that travels with the hypoglossal nerve
  23. What is the phrenic nerve made of and innervates what?
    • Made of: C3, C4 and C5
    • Innervation: Motor nerve of diaphragm and sensory to the cental part of diaphragm
  24. What is the origin, insertion and innervation of the sternocleidomastoid bone?
    • Origin: Sternum and Clavicle
    • Insertion: Mastoid process
    • Innervation: Accessory Nerve
  25. What is the function of the sternocleidomastoid bone, both acting alone and together?
    • Acting Alone: Tilts the head to its own side and rotates the face to the opposite side
    • Acting Together: Flex the neck
  26. What is found within the posterior triange?
    • Accessory Nerve
    • External Jugular Vein
    • Cutaneous Branches of the Cerical Plexus
    • Transverse Cervical and Suprascapular Arteries
    • Scalenus Anterior Muscle
    • Brachial Plexus
    • Subclavian Vessels
    • Phrenic Nerve
  27. What does the accessory nerve within the posterior triangle do?
    Divide triangle into superior portion and inferior portion
  28. Where is the external jugular found?
    Crossing the SCM obliquely
  29. What is the origin, insertion and function of Scalenus Anterior Muscle?
    • Origin: Transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae
    • Insertion: First rib
    • Function: Assisting in lateral flexion of neck and elevation of first rib
    • 2nd Function: Anatomical relationship to brachial plexus and subclavian nerves
  30. What is the anterior triangle further subdivided into?
    • Submental triangle
    • Muscular Triangle
    • Submandibular Triangle
    • Carotid Triangle
  31. What muscles are found within the submental triangle?
    Digastric muscles and mylohyoid muscles
  32. What is the origin, insertion, innervation and function of the mylohyoid muscles?
    • Origin: Mandible
    • Insertion: Hyoid and median fibrous raphe
    • Innervation: Trigeminal Nerve
    • Function: Elevate the floor of the mouth
  33. What is the function of the muscles in the muscular triangle?
    Depress and steady the hyoid bone during swollowing and phonation
  34. What is the origin, insertion, innervation of the sternohyoid?
    • Origin: Manubrium
    • Insertion: Hyoid
    • Innervation: Ansa cervicalis
  35. What is the origin, insertion, innervation of the sternothyroid?
    • Origin: Deep to sternohyoid
    • Insertion: Thyroid Cartilage
    • Innervation: Ansa cervicalis
  36. What is the origin, insertion, innervation of the omohyoid?
    • Origin: Scapula
    • Insertion: Hyoid
    • Connected with Intermediate tendon
    • Innervation: Ansa cervicalis
  37. What is the origin, insertion, innervation of the thyrohyoid?
    • Origin: Thryoid cartilage
    • Insertion: Hyoid
    • Innervation: C1
  38. What is located within the muscular triangle?
    • Infrahyoid muscles
    • Thryoid gland
    • Recurrent laryngeal nerve (Branch of vagus)
  39. What are the borders of the submandibular triangle?
    • Anterior and posterior belly of digastric
    • Inferior border of mandible
  40. What is located within the submandibular triangle?
    • Submandibular Gland
    • Mylohyoid nerve and artery
    • Digastric muscles
    • Stylohyoid muscles
    • Facial artery and vein
    • Hypoglossal nerve
  41. Where is the mylohoid nerve and artery located?
    Superficial surface of the mylohyoid
  42. What is the origin, insertion, innervation and function of the anterior and posteriorbelly of digastric?
    • Origin (anterior): Mandible
    • Origin (posterior): Mastoid process
    • Insertion: Hyoid
    • Innervation (anterior): Trigeminal Nerve
    • Innervation (posterior): Facial nerve
    • Function: Elevate the hyoid and help in opening the mouth
  43. What is the origin, insertion, innervation and function of the stylohyoid muscle?
    • Origin: Styloid process of temporal bone
    • Insertion: Hyoid
    • Innervation: Facial nerve
    • Function: Assist digastric in elevating the hyoid
  44. What are the borders of the carotid triangle?
    • Posterior belly of digastric
    • Superior belly of omohyoid
    • Anterior superior border of SCM
  45. What is located within the Carotid Triangle?
    • Common carotid artery
    • Internal jugular vein
    • Ansa Cervicalis
    • Vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves
  46. What occurs to the CCA within the carotid triangle?
    It divides into the external and internal artery
  47. Where is the internal jugular vein located?
    Deep to the sternocleidomastoid in the carotid triangle
  48. What can occur through the retropharyngeal space?
    Spreading of an inflammation from prevertebral fascia to the thoracic cavity
  49. Where is pain from the central part of diaphragm felt?
    As pain from the skin over the clavicle (referred pain)
  50. Severing the accessory nerve could result in what?
    Drooped shoulder
  51. What is the thoracic inlet syndrome?
    Narrowing gap between scalenus anterior and medius muscles. Causes pressure on the brachial plexus or occlusion of subclavian artery
Card Set
Head and Neck - Organization and Triangles of Neck
Triangles of the neck
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