Research Methods

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  1. Independent Variables
    manipulated to cause changes
  2. Dependent Variables
    measured to determine effects
  3. Control Variables
    held constant
  4. Internal Validity
    unsound and untrue
  5. Testable Hypothesis
    makes a statement about a presumed or theoretical relation between 2 or more variables
  6. Stroop Effect
    the conflict effect shown in the demostration esperiment
  7. Pilot research
    preliminary research
  8. Anthropomorphizing
    • the tendancy to attribute human charactristics (esp. thoughts and feelings) to animals.
    • Example "the dog loved and respected his master". "The rat was hungry so it ate a lot."
  9. Control inadvertent researcher effects by:
    • following a protocol for uniform treatment
    • using a double blind study
    • being alert for a placebo effect and anthropomorphizing
  10. Social Loafing
    people working less hard when in groups
  11. Diffusion of Responsibility
    When people are working alone they think that they are responsible for completing the task. When they work in groups this feeling of responisibility diffuses to others.
  12. Empirical
  13. Priori Method
    • an extention of the authority method
    • Propositions that seem reasonable are believed.
  14. Methods of fixing belief includes:
    • authority
    • tenacity
    • a priori
    • scientific (empirical)
  15. Theory
    organization of concepts that permit the prediction of of data
  16. Data-
    empirical observations
  17. Induction
    reasoning proceeds from particular data to a general theory
  18. Deduction
    reasoning proceeds from a general theory toparticular data
  19. Falsifiability View
    According to this view, the temporary nature of induction makes nagtive evidence more important than positive support
  20. Strong Inference
    Eliminating possible alternative explanations
  21. Intervening Variables
    Abstract concepts that link independent variables to dependent variables

    Gravity is a familiar construct that accomplishes this goal
  22. Good theories are...
    • parsimonious
    • precise
    • testable
  23. Applied Research
    • aims at solving a specific problem
    • Example: how to cure bedwetting
  24. Basic Research
    • has noimmediate practical goal.
    • establishes a reservoir of data, theoretical explanations, and cocepts that can be tapped by the applied researcher
  25. Method of Tenacity
    • commonly seen in racial bigots who cling to their stereotypes even in the precense of a good counterexample.
    • Method of maintaining a belief
  26. Abstract
    a short paragraph that summarizes the key points of an article
  27. Introduction
    specifies the problem to be studies and tells why it is important
  28. Results section
    • tells what happened
    • descriptive statistics are presented that summarize the data
  29. Discussion section
    • most creative section
    • author restates what the data show
    • draws theoretical conclusions
  30. Mozart Effect
    the finding of improved spatial-temporal abilities after listening to classical music by Mozart
  31. Descriptive Observation
    ennumerate what behaviors occur and in what quantity and frequency
  32. Ethology
    the study of naturally occuring behavior (often in the wild)
  33. Interobserver Reliability
    measures whether 2 or more observers yeild similar results when they simultaneously obseve the same behavior.

    measured by a coefficient correlation
  34. Naturalistic observation is refined by;
    ethograms and by delimiting observation categories
  35. Deviant case analysis
    a type of case study that best attempts to minimize the difficulties of making inferences.
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Research Methods
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