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manipulated to cause changes
measured to determine effects
unsound and untrue
makes a statement about a presumed or theoretical relation between 2 or more variables
the conflict effect shown in the demostration esperiment
the tendancy to attribute human charactristics (esp. thoughts and feelings) to animals.
"the dog loved and respected his master". "The rat was hungry so it ate a lot."
Control inadvertent researcher effects by:
following a protocol for uniform treatment
using a double blind study
being alert for a placebo effect and anthropomorphizing
people working less hard when in groups
Diffusion of Responsibility
When people are working alone they think that they are responsible for completing the task. When they work in groups this feeling of responisibility diffuses to others.
an extention of the authority method
Propositions that seem reasonable are believed.
Methods of fixing belief includes:
organization of concepts that permit the prediction of of data
reasoning proceeds from particular data to a general theory
reasoning proceeds from a general theory toparticular data
According to this view, the temporary nature of induction makes nagtive evidence more important than positive support
Eliminating possible alternative explanations
Abstract concepts that link independent variables to dependent variables
Gravity is a familiar construct that accomplishes this goal
Good theories are...
aims at solving a specific problem
: how to cure bedwetting
has noimmediate practical goal.
establishes a reservoir of data, theoretical explanations, and cocepts that can be tapped by the applied researcher
Method of Tenacity
commonly seen in racial bigots who cling to their stereotypes even in the precense of a good counterexample.
Method of maintaining a belief
a short paragraph that summarizes the key points of an article
specifies the problem to be studies and tells why it is important
tells what happened
descriptive statistics are presented that summarize the data
most creative section
author restates what the data show
draws theoretical conclusions
the finding of improved spatial-temporal abilities after listening to classical music by Mozart
ennumerate what behaviors occur and in what quantity and frequency
the study of naturally occuring behavior (often in the wild)
measures whether 2 or more observers yeild similar results when they simultaneously obseve the same behavior.
measured by a coefficient correlation
Naturalistic observation is refined by;
ethograms and by delimiting observation categories
Deviant case analysis
a type of case study that best attempts to minimize the difficulties of making inferences.