vet-tech-a-p-1-ch-1

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darlene.m.nelson
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103641
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vet-tech-a-p-1-ch-1
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2011-09-23 22:59:08
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vet tech anatomy physiology chapter intro set
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vet tech anatomy physiology 1 chapter 1 intro set
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  1. anatomy
    • literally, to cut apart
    • deals with structure
  2. anatomy types
    • gross - visible to the naked eye
    • micro - microscopic aka histology
    • regional - eg hand, hind limb
    • systemic - eg endocrine, cardiovascular
  3. histology
    study of tissues
  4. physiology
    • deals with function
    • how things work in a living system
    • common to a species (species specific)
    • unique to an individual
    • electrical phenomenon - eg using defib to revive animal
    • chemical reactions turn into life
  5. Systems
    • macroscopic level of function - see by looking @ animal
    • composed of organs with related function
    • eleven recognized systems
  6. Digestive System
    • main components - mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas anus
    • main functions - food processing - ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination
  7. Circulatory System
    • main components - heart, blood vessels, blood
    • main functions - internal distribution of materials
  8. Respiratory System
    • main components - lungs, trachea, other breathing tubes
    • main functions - Gas exchange - uptake of oxygen; disposal of carbon dioxide
  9. Immune and Lymphatic System
    • main components - bone marrow, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, lymph vessels, white blood cells
    • main functions - Body defense - fighting infections and cancer
  10. Excretory System
    • main components - kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
    • main functions - disposal of metabolic wastes; regulation of osmotic balance of blood
  11. Endocrine System
    • main components - pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, other hormone-secreting glands
    • main functions - coordination of body activities - eg digestion, metabolism
  12. Reproductive System
    • main components - ovaries, testes, associated organs
    • main functions - reproduction
  13. Nervous System
    • main components - brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs
    • main functions - coordination of body activities; detection of stimuli and formation of responses to them
  14. Integumentary System
    • main components - skin and its derivatives (eg, hair, claws, skin glands)
    • main functions - protection against mechanincal injury, infection, drying out; thermoregulation
  15. Skeletal System
    • main components - skeleton - bones, tendons, ligaments, cartilage
    • main functions - body support, protection of internal organs
  16. Muscular System
    • main components - skeletal muscles
    • main functions - movement, locomotion
  17. Anatomical planes
    • bipeds different than quadupeds
    • sagittal - divides the body into left and right
    • median - aka mid-sagittal - divides the body into equal left and right halves
    • transverse - divides the body into cranial (head end) and caudal (tail end)
    • dorsal for quadrupeds - divides the body into dorsal (back) and ventral (belly)
    • frontal for bipeds - same as dorsal for quadrupeds
  18. Directional terms
    • related to the anatomical planes
    • bipeds different than quadupeds
    • usually paired in relation to an anatomical plane
  19. cranial/caudal
    toward head/tail from transverse plane
  20. dorsal/ventral
    toward back/belly from dorsal plane
  21. rostral/caudal
    toward nose/tail on the head from the transverse plane
  22. cranial/caudal
    on limbs, toward head/tail from transverse plane (front/back of limb)
  23. medial/lateral
    on limbs, toward median/away from median from median plane of limb
  24. dorsal/palmar
    on front feet, toward back/ground from dorsal plane on foot as it normally rests on ground
  25. dorsal/plantar
    on rear feet, toward back/ground from dorsal plane on foot as it normally rests on ground
  26. proximal/distal
    on extremities, toward/away from body
  27. General Body Plan
    • all mammals laid out the same with minor variations
    • bilaterlly symmetrical
    • paired organs - eg lungs, kidneys, eyes
    • single organs - along the midline - eg heart, bladder, nose
  28. Dorsal body cavities
    • bounded (completely defined) by the bones of the axial skeleto
    • cranium (cranial cavity) - houses the brain and is bounded by the bones of the skull
    • spinal canal - houses the spinal cord and is bounded by the vertebrae
    • if injured have inflammation => swelling; if tightly bound will destroy cells
    • this is why we drill holes in skull/remove discs to allow swelling without undo pressure
  29. Ventral body cavities
    • separated by diaphragm (in mammals, not birds) - skirt steak is diaphragm
    • thoracic cavity - pleura - visceral and parietal
    • abdominal cavity - peritoneum - visceral and parietal
  30. Thoracic cavity contents
    • heart
    • lungs
    • pleura
    • pericardial membranes
    • mediastinum - anchor heart and blood vessels to diaphragm along midline; incomplete in dogs, so pleural fluid can go side to side; not cats
    • great vessels - vena cava, aorta
    • esophagus
    • nerves - most important is vagus nerve
    • fluid - to dissipate heat and prevent friction from membranes
  31. Pleura
    • parietal pleura - attached to body wall
    • visceral pleura - attached to organ
    • pleural space - tiny bit of fluid in here so organs don't stick when move
    • membranes are about the thickness of saran wrap
    • pleuresy - pleura swell and stick together; see mostly in older ladies, not usually in mammals
    • pleural effusion - excess fluid in the pleural space
  32. Diaphragm
    • separates thoracic from abdominal cavity
    • muscle - under parasympathetic control (autonomic nervous system)
    • powers respiration
    • spasm = hiccoughs - imbalance between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system
    • curare paralyzes the diaphragm
  33. Abdominal cavity contents
    • Gastro-intestinal system - stomach, small and large intestines, accessory organs (eg liver, pancreas)
    • Urinary system
    • Reproductive system
    • Great vessels - aorta runs along spine - can stick finger on it to stop bleeding in surgery
    • Acessory organs - liver, pancreas
  34. Membranes in abdominal cavity
    • Peritoneum - membrane that keeps everything slippery; not as much movement as thorax
    • visceral peritoneum - adhered to organs
    • parietal peritoneum - adheres to body wall
    • peritonitis - infection of parietal space
    • retro peritoneum - literally, behind peritoneum; contains kidneys to prevent infection spread if they leak
  35. Anatomical levels of organization
    • Cells
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • Systems
  36. Cells
    • Fundamental unit of life - prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    • site of health - origin of disease
    • all illness occurs here
    • Grow
    • Respond to stimuli
    • Absord food
    • Eliminate waste
    • Can't get too big - surface area to volume ratio can't get to great or cell can't feed itself or support structures
  37. Tissues
    • Groups of cells working together to achieve a function
    • Four basic tissues - epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve
  38. Epithelium (Epithelial tissue)
    • Covers and lines the body - skin, membranes
    • Secretes and excretes - sebum, sweat, milk, other glands that make stuff (thyroid, ovaries, etc)
  39. Connective tissue
    • Holds the body together
    • Offers protection and support to other tissues
    • Composed of cells (widely spaced), fibers, matrix
    • Matrix - liquid, semi-liquid or solid; cells and fiber float in this
  40. Muscle tissue
    3 types - skeletal, cardiac, smooth
  41. Skeletal muscle tissue
    moves the bones and is under concious control
  42. Cardiac muscle tissue
    • makes up the heart
    • no concious control
  43. Smooth muscle tissue
    • found in internal organs (hollow)
    • under autonomic control
  44. Nervous tissue
    • transmit information
    • controls body function
    • composed of cells called neurons
    • if not functioning, nothing else will work
  45. Organs
    • Groups of tissues that work together to perform a function
    • Often hollow
    • Composed of layers of tissues - very thin; always in the following order
    • 1. Internal lining (epithelial)
    • 2. Muscularis (muscle)
    • 3. Tunica (connective tissue)
    • 4. Serosa (outer layer - epithelium)
  46. Systems
    • Groups of organs involved in a common set of activities
    • most complex level of organization
    • removing an entire system has a profound impact on the body, eg getting fat after spay
  47. Health
    • begins a the cellular level
    • homeostasis - stay the same (active state, stuff is changing, but keeping in balance)
    • dynamic (active) equilibrium
    • negative feedback loops - eg lay in sun, temp goes up, pant and move out of sun, temp down

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