Ch 6 - Organization of the Body - Building a Medical Vocabulary with Spanish Translations

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Ch 6 - Organization of the Body - Building a Medical Vocabulary with Spanish Translations
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2011-09-26 20:36:53
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Ch 6 - The Body systems - Building a Medical Vocabulary with Spanish Translations
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  1. The body's organizational structure has several Levels, for our purposes there are 8. What structure comes after the following structure?

    Atoms or ions
    • Molecules
  2. The body's organizational structure has several Levels, for our purposes there are 8. What structure comes after the following structure?

    Molecules
    • Organelles (nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, chromosomes)
  3. The body's organizational structure has several Levels, for our purposes there are 8. What structure comes after the following structure?

    organelles (specialized structures within cells)
    • cells (fundamental units of life)
  4. The body's organizational structure has several Levels, for our purposes there are 8. What structure comes after the following structure?

    cells (fundamental structure of life)
    • tissues (similar cells acting together to perform a function)
  5. The body's organizational structure has several Levels, for our purposes there are 8. What structure comes after the following structure?

    tissues (similar cells acting togther to perform a function)
    • organs (tissue types working together to perform one or more functions, such as the lungs)
  6. The body's organizational structure has several Levels, for our purposes there are 8. What structure comes after the following structure?

    Organs (tissue types working together to perform one or more functions, like the lungs)
    • body systems (several organs working together to accomplish a set of functions, like the digestive system)
  7. The body's organizational structure has several Levels, for our purposes there are 8. What structure comes after the following structure?

    Body systems (several organs working together to accomplish a set of functions, like digestive system)
    • Total Organism (a human capable of carrying on life functions)
  8. The body's organizational structure has several Levels, for our purposes there are 8. What is the most basic structure?
    • atoms or ions (for example, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen)
  9. What is the fundamental unit of all living matter?
    Cell
  10. Chromosomes, threadlike structures within the nucleus of a cell, contain deoxyribonucleis acid, or ?
    DNA
  11. Nucleus is one of the three major parts of a cell, what are the other 2?
    cytoplasm, cell membrane
  12. Cytoplasm is one of the three major parts of a cell, what are the other 2?
    Nucleus and Cell membrane
  13. Cell Membrane is one of the three major parts of a cell, what are the other 2?
    Nucleus and cytoplasm
  14. The CF's Somat(o) and som(a) mean?
    Body
  15. Chromosomes have how many strands of DNA?
    • two
    • there is a double strand of DNA in each chromosome
  16. A change in the number or structure of chromosomes is a disease or condition often referred to as?
    genetic disorder
  17. The most common chromosomal abnormality of a generalized syndrome?
    downs syndrome
  18. There are four basic types of tissue composed of different types of microscopic cells. Name the type of tissue based on the following description.

    appears as sheetlike arrangements of cells
    • Epithelial tissue
  19. There are four basic types of tissue composed of different types of microscopic cells. Name the type of tissue based on the following description.

    the example is bone cells, which form the densest type of this tissue
    • connective tissue
  20. There are four basic types of tissue composed of different types of microscopic cells. Name the type of tissue based on the following description.

    Neurons tend to bind with other neurons or communicate with one another by electrical impulses
    • Nerve tissue
  21. There are four basic types of tissue composed of different types of microscopic cells. Name the type of tissue based on the following description.

    composed of cells that have the ability to contract when stimulated by a nerve
    • muscle tissue
  22. The term that means existing at, and usually before, birth
    congenital
  23. This tissue forms the covering of body surfaces, both inside and on the surface of the body, and example is the outer layer of skin.
    Epithelial tissue
  24. This tissue supports and binds other body tissues and parts, examples are bone and cartilage.
    connective tissue
  25. this tissue coordinates and controls many body activities; it is found in the brain and spinal cord
    nervous tissue
  26. this tissue produces movement
    muscle tissue
  27. Every individual begins life as a ?
    cell
  28. similar cells acting together to perform a function are called a/an
    tissue
  29. the type of tissue that supports and binds other body tissues and parts is called?
    connective
  30. the tissue type that forms the covering of body surffaces is ?
    epithelial tissue
  31. the type of tissue that produces movement?
    muscle tissue
  32. the tissue type that coordinates and controls many body activities is?
    nervous tissue
  33. all cells of the body except the sex cells are called?
    somatic cells
  34. undifferentiated cells that give rise to specialized cells are called
    stem cells
  35. the term that means existing at or before birth is?
    congenital
  36. What position is described below?

    The person is standing erect with arms at the sides and palms forward.
    • Anatomic position
  37. A type of pain in the chest
    thoraco/dynia
  38. a heart disease in which the chest pain results from interference with the supply of oxygen to the heart muscle?
    angina pectoris
  39. thoracic is pertaining to the chest, use a prefix to form a term that means pertaining to a location above the chest
    supra-thoracic
  40. meaning through the chest cavity or chest wall
    trans/thorac/ic
  41. Anatomic planes or imaginary flat surfaces used to identify the position of the body. Locations and positions are described relative to the body in the anatomic position. Name the plane described:

    Divides the body into front and back portinos. also known as the coronal plane
    • Frontal plane, coronal plane
  42. Anatomic planes or imaginary flat surfaces used to identify the position of the body. Locations and positions are described relative to the body in the anatomic position. Name the plane described:

    divides the body into upper and lower portions
    • Transverse plane
  43. Anatomic planes or imaginary flat surfaces used to identify the position of the body. Locations and positions are described relative to the body in the anatomic position. Name the plane described:

    divides the body into equal right and left halves
    • midsagittal plane
  44. Aspects refer to the surface of the figure when seen from various perspectives. What aspect is described below?

    the front aspect
    • Anterior Aspect
  45. Aspects refer to the surface of the figure when seen from various perspectives. What aspect is described below?

    the back of the person
    • posterior aspect
  46. Aspects refer to the surface of the figure when seen from various perspectives. What aspect is described below?

    the side aspect
    • Lateral aspect
  47. Aspects refer to the surface of the figure when seen from various perspectives. What aspect is described below?

    above and beneath, respectively
    • above (superior/cranial) beneath (inferior/caudal)
  48. anter(o), anterior
    nearer to or toward the front
  49. poster(o), posterior
    nearer to or toward the back
  50. ventr(o), ventral
    belly side
  51. dors(o), dorsal
    directed toward or situated on the back side
  52. medi(o), medial, median
    middle or nearer the middle
  53. later(o), lateral
    farther from the midline of the body or from a structure
  54. super(o), superior
    uppermost or above
  55. infer(o), inferior
    lowermost or below
  56. proxim(o), proximal
    nearer the origin or point of attachment
  57. dist(o), distal
    far or distant from the origin or point of attachment
  58. caud(o), caudad, caudal
    in an inferior position
  59. caphl(o), cephalad
    toward the head
  60. Antero/medal
    front and middle
  61. Ventro/median
    Antero/median

    same thing, what does it mean?
    front middle
  62. poster/external
    the outside of something posterior (situated inthe back)
  63. postero/internal
    behind and within
  64. antero/posterior
    pertaining to both the front and back sides, or from the front to the back of the body
  65. postero/anterior
    back to front

    abbreviated PA
  66. what are both meanings of the abbreviation:

    PA
    postero/anterior

    Physicians assistant
  67. dorso/ventral
    back and belly surfaces
  68. dorso/lateral
    behind and one side of the body
  69. medio/lateral
    middle to one side
  70. antero/lateral
    to the front and one side
  71. uni/lateral
    affecting one side
  72. bi/lateral
    pertaining to two sides
  73. postero/medial
    situated in the middle of the back
  74. antero/superior
    a position in front and above
  75. super/ficial
    situated on or near the surface
  76. Inferior
    low or below
  77. Infero/median
    situated in the middle of the underside
  78. caudad, caudal
    pertaining to the tail
  79. proxim/al
    something that is near
  80. distal
    • opposite of proximal
    • If the upper end of the thigh bone is proximal, the lower end of the thigh boen is Distal
  81. telecardiogram
    registers the heart impulses of patients in distant places
  82. cephalad
    toward the head
  83. dorso/cephalad
    situated toward the back of the head
  84. cephalic
    pertaining to the head
  85. Prone Position
    • lying face down
  86. supine position
    • lying on the back
  87. The Body is made up of two major regions
    identify them :
    • 1 Head, Neck and Trunk (chest abdomen, pelvis)
    • 2 extremities (arms and legs)
  88. abdomin(o)
    abdomen
  89. acr(o)
    extremities (arms and legs)
  90. axill(o)
    armpit
  91. cephal(o)
    head
  92. carni(o)
    carnium (skull)
  93. dactyl(o)
    finger or toe
  94. encephal(o)
    brain
  95. herni(o)
    hernia
  96. omphal(o), umbilic(o)
    umbilicus (navel)
  97. pelv(i)
    pevlis
  98. peritone(o)
    peritoneum
  99. pod(o)
    foot
  100. som(a), somat(o)
    body
  101. spin(o)
    spine
  102. thorac(o)
    thorax (chest)
  103. steth(o)
    thorax (chest)
  104. viscer(o)
    viscera (lg abdominal organs)
  105. The part of the body between the thorax and pelvis?
    Abdomen
  106. the Abdomen is divided into four parts called?
    quadrants
  107. What are the four Quadrants of the abdomen?
    RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ
  108. What does RUQ mean?
    Right Upper Quadrant
  109. What does LUQ mean?
    Left upper Quadrant
  110. what does RLQ mean?
    Right Lower Quadrant
  111. What does LLQ mean?
    Left Lower quadrant
  112. contents of the RUQ?
    • Right lobe of the liver
    • gallblader
    • parts of the Lg and Sm intestines
  113. contents of the LUQ?
    • Lobe of the liver
    • Stomach
    • pancreas
    • Left kidney, spleen
    • parts of the Lg and Sm intestines
  114. contents of the RLQ?
    • Right ureter
    • Right ovary and uterine tube
    • appendix
    • parts of the Lg and Sm intestines
  115. contents of the LLQ?
    • Left ureter
    • left ovary and uterine tube
    • parts of the lg and sm intestines
  116. what is another term for Navel?
    umbilicus
  117. how many anatomical regions are there?
    9
  118. Term for anatomical region 1?
    epigastric
  119. Term for anatomical region 2?
    hypochondriac right
  120. Term for anatomical region 3?
    Hypocondriac left
  121. Term for anatomical region 4
    R Lumbar
  122. Term for anatomical region 5
    Umbilical, Naval
  123. Term for anatomical region 6?
    Left Lumbar
  124. Term for anatomical region 7?
    right inguinal
  125. Term for anatomical region 8?
    Hypogastric
  126. Term for anatomical region 9?
    left inguinal
  127. What are the two major body cavities?
    • Dorsal Cavity
    • Ventral Cavity
  128. The Dorsal Cavity contains what other 2 cavities?
    • Cranial Cavity and Spinal Cavity
  129. The Ventral Cavity contains what 3 cavities?
    • Thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, pelvic cavity
  130. What seperates the Thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity?
    Diaphragm
  131. The abdominopelvic cavity (ventral) is lined with a membrane called?
    • peritoneum
  132. what are the two types of peritoneum?
    parietal peritoneum lines the abdominal and pelvic walls

    visceral peritoneum contains large folds that weave in between the organs binding them to one another and to the walls of the cavity
  133. Ascites
    Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Can result in considerable enlargement/stretching of the abdomen
  134. Distension
    • Enlargement
    • Stretching
  135. Surgical puncture of the abdomen
    Abdomino/centesis
  136. another name for abdomino/centesis
    abdominal paracentesis
  137. acro/paralysis
    movement of the extremities is impaired
  138. In raynaud Phenomenon or Acrocynosis, what color do the extremities turn?
    blue
  139. a disorder in wihch there is enlargement of the extremities
    acro/megaly
  140. the term for a skin condition
    dermat/osis
  141. inflamation of the skin of the extremities, especially the hands and feet?
    acro/dermat/itis
  142. fingers and toes are called?
    digitis
  143. a mark or record of a finger print
    dactylo/gram
  144. dactylitis
    inflamation of the finger or toe
  145. a cramping or twitching of a digit
    dactylo/spasm
  146. writer's cramp is a form of?
    chirospasm
  147. surgical repair of the hand?
    chrio/plasty
  148. Chrio/pod/y literally refers to the ?
    hands and feet
  149. specializes in the care of feet
    pod/iatrist
  150. a print or record of the foot?
    podo/gram
  151. Dehiscence
    a splitting open or rupture of a wound after it has closed, or the seperation of a surgical incision.
  152. Evisceration
    is the protrusion of internal organs through an open wound.
  153. EEG
    Electroencephalogram
  154. DNA
    deoxyribonucleic acid
  155. AP
    anteroposterior (also others)
  156. abnormal increase in the number of cells in a tissue
    hyper/plasia
  157. an increase in the size of an organ caused by an increase in the size of the cells rather than the number of cells.
    Hypertrophy
  158. essentially absent, organ or tissue does not develop
    aplasia
  159. reduced, underdeveloped of organ or tissue
    hypoplasia
  160. increased, more tissue development; enlargement of organ
    hyper/plasia
  161. dysplasia
    continous or inappropriate
  162. rapid and abnormal cells, characterisitc of malignancy
    anaplasia

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