Card Set Information
What is the definition of a test?
A standardized procedure
for sampling behavior and describing it with categories or scores.
What are the common characteristics that most
Standardized procedure, behavior sample, scores
or categories, norms or standards, prediction of nontest behavior
What is a norm-referenced test?
test that use a
well-defined population of persons for their interpretive population.
What is a criterion-reference test?
Tests that measure what a person can do rather
than comparing results to the performance levels of others.
What are the different types
of psychological tests?
measure an individual’s ability in relatively global areas such as verbal
comprehension, perceptual organization, or reasoning and therby help
determine potential for scholastic work or certain occupations.
the capability for a skill
a person’s degree of learning, success, or accomplishment in a subject or
the traits, qualities or behaviors that determine a person’s
Measure an individuals preference for certain activities.
objectivily describe and count the frequency of a behavior, identifying
the antecedents and conseuences of the behavior.
measure cognitive, sensory, perceptual, and motor performance to
determine the extent, locus, and behavioral consequnces of brain damage.
What are psychological
tests primarily used to do?
Diagnosis and treatment
. What are the common uses of tests?
Make decisions about persons.
What are desirable test
Examiners must be
familiar with materials and directions before giving tests out.
What are the primary responsibilities of test
Publication: no pre-maturely released
Marketing: advertise it honestly
Distribution: only to trained ppl. Class A , B(BA), C
What are the three levels of qualifications test users
must meet for purchasing tests?
A. nonpsychologiest: business executives or educational
B. completed an advance course in testing from college
Master degree minimum.
(i.e., What kinds of tests could be bought at
the different levels?)
What is meant when we say testing should be in the
“best interest of the client?”
Test should be given to benefit the client not harm
What is the Tarasoff case? What is meant by ‘duty to
warn’ and when does a psychologist have a duty to warn?
You warn the persons in danger. And you have to notify
authorites if they are abusing children/elderly/themselves/otehrs.
An Indian student stabs another student to death.
Campus therapist knew this and only reported it to campus police and never
warned the girl that got stabbed.
What is informed consent?
When, in regard to testing, is it not required?
Test takes or representatives re made aware in plain
English what reasons for testing, types of test being used, how the results
will be measured and used.
: client received suffient info
client is mentally able to give consent
What is meant when we say test results must be given
“in a language the test taker can understand?”
Linguistic barriers ESL, also appropriate age/ mental
What does the book recommend for how to consider the
impact of cultural background on test results?
Avoid stereotype threat
Adopt a frame of reference
What was the first use of
Chinese 2200 BC civil
What does the “brass instruments” era of testing
Tools used to measure sensory thresholds and reactions
times erroneously that that measured intelligence.
1800’s Europe and Great Britain
Who developed the 1
intelligence test & why?
Binet and Simon 1905.
Goal to identify which kids could
or could not learn in a typical classroom environment.
When did intelligence
testing make it to the U.S.?
was this important?
1916. Translated it to be
culturally relavent to USA. Goddard was a D-bag nativist
What tests were developed
for use with Army recruits & what were the positive & negative
results of these tests?
got to experience in psychometrics of test construction
construction became a science
spent money and didn’t really even use the test scores
wouldn’t understand directions/fell asleep.
What are projective tests
designed to measure?
Responses to ambiguous
stimuli ->disclose innermost needs, fantasies, and conflicts.
What is the MMPI? When was
the most recent version published?
Multiphasic Personality Inventory. 2003
1. How does test interpretation work, For
Comparing ones score is compared to a standardized sample
How does test interpretation work Criterion-referenced tests?
compare raw score to set standard
How can we summarize & pictorially represent
a distribution of scores
Histagram, Ploygon, bell shaped curve.
Which is strongly
influenced by outliers?
What is the standard deviation (SD)?
Degree of dispersion in a group of
What percent of scores fall within 1 SD in a
What percent of scores fall within 2 SD in a normal
2 SD. 95%
What percent of scores fall within 3 SD in a
3 SD. 99%
What is a percentile rank?
The percentage rank of a
person in the standardized sample who scored below a specific raw score
How do you calculate a
Number of scores below target raw score, divided by total of participants, multiplied by 100
What are the benefits in
using percentiles? .
Easy to obtain, and understand
. What is a standardized score?
Expresses the distance from the mean in standard
What is a z score
Computation of an examinee’s standard score.
standardized score calculated how
What are the M & SD of z scores
What are the M & SD T scores
50 M, 10 SD
What are the M & SD IQ scores
100 M, 15 SD
What are the M & SD CEEB
500 M, 10 SD
How can we calculate the various standardized
scores once we have the Z scores?
What is meant by test standardization?
Test results are compared
What are norms?
Statistical summary of scores from the norm group or
What types of scores can be used as norms
Sample is large and representative
and the raw score distribution is only mildly nonnormal.
What are the important issues to consider when
developing test norms
if a norm-referenced test doesn’t represent the population
for whom the test is intended, they are useless and all comaprisons made will
What factors should be considered in selecting a
age, grade, sex, education, ses, ethnic group, geographic
What is random sampling?
Every person in the target population has an equal likely
chance to be used.
stratified random sampling
putting constraints on your randomness. PPl r chosen
randomly from within each strata.
divided the population into geographical clusters, than
randomly sample from each cluster.
1. What is classical test theory? Test scores
result from the influence of 2 factors:
consistency and Inconsistency
What are the four assumptions of classical test
a. measurement errors are random
error of measurement is zero
score and error scores are uncorrelated
on different scores are uncorrelated
What are the two types of error?
Un-systematic & systematic.
Reliablitity is involved with what time of error/
What is the range of a reliability coefficient?
(-1) -- +1What is high?
. What are the types of reliability that consider temporal
What are the types of reliability that consider
Split half reliability
Kuder-Richard estimate of reliability
What are the benefits and drawbacks of the different
types of reliability?
Split-half approach is not precise; coeffient alpha
reliability is higher.
. What is considered acceptable reliability for
research purposes? .
What is acceptable for tests used to make
important decisions about individuals?
What is the standard error of measurement (SEM)?
Index of how much on average an individual score might
varies if they were to repeatedly take a test.
What is the relationship between reliability and
The more reliable the test the less error there is on
How do we calculate
what does a confidence interval tell us?
The accuracy of what we can predict will be the next test
score if they were to retake the exam.
What is Item Response Theory?
An idea that we can use fancy math to develop scales that
contain highly discriminating items and thereby increase the reliability of
tests. Eliminate error in test development phase,
What is validity?
What it measure what it claims to measure .
What is the relationship between reliability and
Test must be reliable
before it can be valid.
test be valid if it is not reliable?
What type of error affects validity?
and unsystematic error
What is the Tinitarian model?
3 phase model to describe validation procedures
What types of validity does
Content validity, criterion-related validity
(construction/predictive Validity), Construct validity.
What is face validity?
Appearance of the appropriateness of the test
different from other types of
Not an actual measure of
What is content validity and how is it assessed?
A)are items on the test a good representative
sample of the domain we are measuring. B) assessed by experts.
What is criterion-related validity?
What types of validity are encompassed under it?
A) the extent to which a
test correlates with non0test behaviors; called criterion.
B) Concurrent Validity/predictive
What are the differences between concurrent
& predictive validity?
Concurrent Validity- test is correlated with a criterion
is available at the time of
predictive Validity- test is correlated to a criterion that
becomes available in the future.
What is the standard error of the estimate?
Margin of error expected
in the predicted criterion score, it tells us how accurately can test
scores predict the performance on the criterion.
How SEE it related to predictive validity?
The higher the correlation between test and
criterion, the less there is error there is in the predictions to be made from
What is a typical validity coefficient for
Rarely greater than .60
Predictive validity is
still considered useful if its between
What is decision theory used for?
involves the use of test scores as a
What is an expectancy table
A visual tool that helps decision makers chart
data and make cut off points
How does expectancy table relate to predictive validity?
If we use tests to make
decisions than those test must have strong predictive validity.
In decision theory, what is considered a hit?
Is when a correct prediction occurred
In decision theory, what is considered a
Is when we predicted incorrectly. false positive
In decision theory, what is considered a
When they were predicted to fail but actually
What is construct validity?
Tests designed to measure constructs (personality) must
estimate the existence of an inferred, underlying characteristic based on a
limited sample of behavior. Good for test that don’t have a well defined domain
What does Construct validity involve?
Construct validity involves the
meaning of test scores.
What are the ways we can demonstrate a test has
Test Homogeneity- see if items intercorrelate with on another.
Developmental change- if tests measure something that
changes with age.
Theory-consistent group differences- do ppl with
different characteristics score differently (in a way we would expect)
- do test scores change as expected based on an intervention
Classification Accuracy – how well can a test classify
people on the construct being measured
accurately identify those with the trait
accurately id those w/0 the trait.
Inter- correlation among tests- looking for similarties
or diff. with scores on other tests
validity/ discriminant validity
What is convergent validity?
Is supported when tests measuring the same construct
are found to correlate. Example test that measure depression should correlate
with one another
Is supported when tests measuring different or
unrelated constructs are found
to correlate with one another.
What do they tell us?
Tells you if your comparing apples to oranges or not.