vet-tech-a-p-1-ch-2-to-buffers

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darlene.m.nelson
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103716
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vet-tech-a-p-1-ch-2-to-buffers
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2011-09-23 22:58:41
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vet tech anatomy physiology chapter chemical basis life through buffers set
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vet tech anatomy physiology 1 chapter 2 chemical basis for life through buffers set
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  1. General facts
    • matter is in the realm of anatomy
    • energy is in the realm of physiology
    • chemistry is the gross anatomy of physical sciences
    • physics is physiology
  2. Matter
    • world is made up of matter
    • occupies space
    • has mass/weight
    • has variable states - gas, solid, liquid
    • state is determined by the energetic state of atoms
    • can transition from one state to another based on energy
    • water + energy = gas
    • water - energy = solid
  3. Atoms
    • fundamental units of matter
    • composed of smaller units - protons, neutrons, electrons
    • arranged in a specific order - nucleus, electron cloud
  4. Electrons
    negative charge
  5. Nucleus
    contains protons and neutrons
  6. Electron cloud
    • contains electrons
    • electrons have different energy levels/shells/orbits
    • 1st shell has at most 2 electrons
    • other shells have at most 8 electrons
    • each shell must be full before the next one can have electrons
    • if outermost shell is full, atom is not reactive
  7. Elements
    • made of atoms of the same type
    • cannot be broken down into any other substance
    • 112 (may be 119 now) elements - 92 of them occur in nature
    • examples: gold, oxygen, carbon
  8. Chemical Symbol
    • derived from Greek, Latin or English name
    • O = oxygen
    • AU = aurum (gold)
    • Ag = argentium (silver)
  9. Atomic Weight
    sum of # of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
  10. Atomic Number
    number of protons present
  11. Biologically important elements
    • O = Oxygen
    • C = Carbon
    • N = Nitrogen
    • K = Potassium (Kali, greek)
    • Na = Sodium (Natrum, latin)
    • Cl = Chloride
    • S = Sulfur
  12. Periodic Table
    • last column is noble gases - inert; don't react; outer shell full
    • rows and columns are closely related in behavio (how they react chemically)
    • in cats?, acetominophen binds irreversibly to hemoglobin so it can't carry Oxygen
  13. Sub-Atomic particles
    • neutrons and protons
    • sub-atomic level is where chemical binding occurs
  14. Neutrons
    • found in nucleus
    • neutral in charge
    • along with protons, have mass and contribute to atomic weight
    • proved to exist as atomic weight is 2x the number of protons
  15. Protons
    • found in nucleus
    • positive charge
    • equal in number to neutrons
    • mass = one (arbitrarily set)
  16. Electrons
    • extremely small particles
    • little atomic mass
    • orbit the nucleus in electron shells
    • negatively charged
    • credit the net electrical charge of an atom
    • most atoms neutral - protons = electrons
    • sometimes form ions
  17. Ions
    • atom carries a charge
    • positive - fewer electrons than protons
    • negative - more electrons than protons
    • are reactive
    • in body they are called electrolytes
  18. Isotopes
    • proton # is constant
    • neutron # is different
    • causes variation in atomic weight, but not in charge
  19. Three isotopes of Hydrogen
    • Protium - 1 proton, no neutrons
    • Deuterium - 1 proton, 1 neutron - normal hydrogen
    • Tritium - 1 proton, 2 neutrons
  20. Radioactivity
    • defined by isotopes
    • can measure age by rate of decay (change in weight of atom)
    • half life can be short - water, cessium
    • half life can be tens of thousands of years - uranium
    • eg carbon dating
  21. Molecules and Compounds
    chemical joining of atoms create molecules and compounds
  22. Molecule
    • joining of two or more atoms
    • if same kind of atom, it is a molecule of the element
  23. Compound
    • if different kind of atoms join, it is a compound
    • sodium + chloride = sodium chloride
    • all compounds are molecules
    • not all molecules are compounds
  24. Chemical bonds
    • occur when atoms share or transfer electrons between themselves
    • vary in strength
    • three types - covalent, ionic, hydrogen
  25. Covalent bonds
    • strongest
    • atoms share electrons
    • carbon is great sharer of electrons (makes strong bonds)
    • very difficult to break
    • strength depends on number of shared electrons - one=single, two=double, three=triple
    • like happily married person not even looking at other pootential mates
  26. Polar molecules
    • covalent bond
    • molecule shares electrons unequally
    • creates a positive and negative end (on the molecule, not the individual atoms)
    • molecule itself is not charged
  27. Ionic bonds
    • electrons transferred from one atom to another
    • usually involve atoms that have almost full and almost empty outer shells
    • drawn together by electrostatic attraction
    • participating atoms become ions (charged particles)
  28. Ions
    • atoms that carry an electrical charge
    • participate in ionic bonding
    • important to the body in muscle contraction, nerve impulses, and water balance
  29. Cations
    positively charged ions
  30. Anions
    negatively charged ions
  31. Ionic Bonds
    • not strong enough to be polar
    • weaker than covalent bonds
    • atoms tend to stay together unless something more attractive comes along
  32. Hydrogen bonds
    • special type of ionic bond
    • occur between hydrogen atoms already bonded to other atoms covalently
    • hydrogen has atomic # of 1; will either pick up 1 or give up 1 electron
    • very weak bond - will break at the drop of a hat
    • important to proteins
  33. Chemical reactions
    • formation and breaking of chemical bonds
    • we are chemical in our most basic state
    • reactants combine to form products
    • 3 types of reactions - synthesis, decompostion, exchange
  34. Chemical Equation
    • written description of chemical reaction
    • reactants - eg X and Y
    • products - eg Z
    • arrow direction indicates type of reaction
  35. Synthesis reactions
    • build things up
    • eg CO2 + H2 -> CO + H2O
  36. Decomposition reactions
    • break things down
    • eg AB -> A + B
  37. Exchange reactions
    • no net change
    • most common is buffer reaction, eg when you drink OJ your blood doesn't get acidic
    • eg NaHCO3 + HCl <=> NaCl + H2O + CO2
  38. Energy and Chemical reactions
    • synthesis reactions require energy which is then stored in the chemical bond
    • decompostion reactions release energy in several forms - heat, light, radiation
    • exchange reactions are energy neutral - energy in = energy out
  39. Rate of Chemical reactions
    • concentration of reactants
    • temperature - heat increases rate of reactions
  40. Activation energy
    amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
  41. Catalysts
    • help speed reactions but don't take part in them
    • catalyst can be reused
  42. Enzymes
    protein catalysts found in nature
  43. Whelping problems
    • babies not coming out
    • 1st thing to do is give calcium & glucose to aid muscle contraction
  44. Nerve conduction
    requires sodium and potassium
  45. Muscle cramps
    need potassium
  46. Fresh food vs older food
    • fresh (dry) food is important
    • food has micronutrients that are important as catalyst
    • older food will have less micronutrients so animal may become ill
  47. Inorganic Compounds
    • do not contain hydrocarbon groups (hydrogen and carbon molecules bonded together)
    • often bound by ionic bonds
    • important ones include - water, salts, acids and bases
  48. Organic Compounds
    • contain hydrocarbon groups (hydrogen and carbon molecules bonded together)
    • usually contain covalent bonds
    • common ones (all food) - carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
  49. Functional Groups in Organic Compounds
    • A group of atoms that defines the properties of an organic molecule
    • allows for differences between molecules with similar hydrocarbon structures
    • eg housing development w/ houses all the same; one owner adds chimney, another shrubs, etc
    • eg galactose, sucrose, lactose are all sugars
  50. Water
    • inorganic compound
    • polar molecule - chemically neutral w/ positive and negative end
    • universal solvent - even rocks will eventually yield
    • ideal transport medium
    • high heat capacity - takes a lot of energy to change state of water
    • high heat of vaporization
    • lubricating - reduce friction
    • can't survive > 3 days w/o water
  51. Solutes
    chemicals added to water
  52. Solution
    water + solute
  53. Solvent
    water
  54. Hydrophilic
    • water lover
    • mix well with water
  55. Hydrophobic
    • water hater
    • non-polar, neutral molecules like lipids
  56. Salts
    • composed of minerals
    • bound by ionic bonds
    • principal form of mineral storage in the body
    • eg potassium salts, calcium salts, phosphur salts (storage of phosphates)
    • capable of ionization - electrolytes
  57. Acids
    • freely release hydrogen ions
    • proton donors
    • H+
  58. Bases
    • freely accept hydrogen ions
    • proton acceptors
    • OH-
  59. Acids and Bases
    • neutralize each other
    • important when we have stupid human tricks - eg dog eats Tidy Bowl; give vinegar
  60. pH Scale
    • measures alkalinity and acidity
    • ranges 1-14
    • 7 is neutral (pure water)
    • 1 is most acidic
    • 14 is most basic
    • dogs skin is different pH from humans
    • cats & dogs are different also
  61. Buffers
    • weak acids and bases that do not completely ionize in water
    • help keep pH in the neutral range during chemical reactions in living systems
    • in lactated ringers - lactate is a buffer

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