Neuro Anatomy Exam 1

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Neuro Anatomy Exam 1
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2011-09-22 23:11:59
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  1. Gall's basic tenets
    • 1. The brain is the organ of the
    • mind.
    • 2. The mind is composed of multiple, distinct, innate faculties.
    • 3. Each faculty must have a separate "organ" in the
    • brain.
    • 4. The size of an organ, other things being equal, is a measure of its
    • power.
    • 5. The shape of the brain is determined by the size of the various
    • organs.
    • 6. As the skull takes its shape from the brain, the surface of the skull
    • can be read as an accurate index of psychological aptitudes and tendencies.

    • •“Strict” localization
    • of function in the brain.
  2. Broca
    • •Credited
    • with the discovery (in 1861) of left frontal lobe lesions associated with
    • inability to produce speech (motor aphasia) based on post-mortem dissection of
    • the patient's brain

    • •This
    • provided strong evidence for localization of function within the brain

    • •Broca also established the
    • asymmetry of function between the two cerebral hemispheres (lateralization –
    • language in left hemisphere, not in right).

    -Broca’s area (BA 44 & 45)
  3. Wernicke
    In 1874, he described sensory aphasia emphasizing the impairment of auditory language comprehension (leading to erroneous speech output and patients’ unawareness of their errors!). This was associated with a lesion in the posterior portion of the 1st left temporal gyrus.
  4. Lashley
    • Proposed that mental
    • functions are NOT localized in the brain (all parts of the brain contribute)

    Lashley studied memory function in animals and found that the amount, not the location, of brain matter removed was associated with impaired memory

    • •Fell out of favor after the development of modern methods for studying the brain in living
    • persons
  5. Chomsky
    Developed a new of theory of grammar

    Argued that capacity for language learning and usage is innate rather than learned

    • Theorized that grammar includes parallel neurologic
    • language processes
  6. Geschwind
    Revitalized the study of language disorders and the localizationist-connectionist model

    –Founded to field of Behavioral Neurology (which focuses on higher mental functions and the brain)
  7. Goodglass
    Helped to develope aphasia classifications

    Part of the "Boston" classification system
  8. Penfield
    Wilder Penfield conducted studies during brain surgery for intractable epileptic seizures through electro-stimulation or brain mapping (1st technique to map activity of living brain to specific behaviors)

    Direct relationship between a specific area of the brain and a specific experience or behavior
  9. Clinicopathologic Method
    Based on case studies (rather than experimentation)

    • •Assumes that specific behavioral dysfunction are associated with lesion at specific
    • locations in the brain

    •One implication is that once such relationships are known, one can identify the location of a lesion by identifying the pattern of lost or disordered functions
  10. Equipotential
    Theory of Brain Function
    • •Predominated over locationist-connectionist models
    • during early 20th century.

    • •Proposed that mental
    • functions are NOT localized in the brain (all parts of the brain contribute)

    • •Based on experimental work of Karl Lashley
    • •Lashley studied memory
    • function in animals and found the amount, not the location, of brain matter removed was
    • associated with impaired memory

    • •Fell out of favor
    • after the development of modern methods for studying the brain in living
    • persons
  11. Rostral
    Towards the head
  12. Caudal
    tt tail
  13. dorsal
    tt back
  14. ventral
    tt stomach
  15. lateral
    tt outside
  16. medial
    tt inside
  17. posterior
    on the back side
  18. anterior
    on the front (belly) side
  19. superior/ cranial
    on the top (skull) side
  20. inferior
    on the lower side
  21. caudal
    on the lowermost position
  22. Superficial
    toward the outside?
  23. deep
    toward the inside
  24. Spatial vs. Temporal Resolution
    • Spatial Resolution: The ability with which we can view details of
    • the location of the activity in the brain. MRI
    • has the best resolution.

    • Temporal Resolution: How
    • quickly we can get information about the course of the response from the time
    • of stimulus presentation
  25. sagital
    cut having a left and a right
  26. coronal
    • cut having front and back
  27. transverse
    cut having top and bottom
  28. medial sagittal
    cut left to right
  29. transverse
    cut top and bottom
  30. coronal
    cut front and back
  31. frontal
    cut front and back
  32. Ipsilateral
    On the same side
  33. contralateral
    on the opposite side
  34. bilateral
    on both sides
  35. Electro-stimulation/ brain mapping
    • Electro-stimulation or brain mapping was the first
    • technique that mapped the activity of the living brain to specific behaviors

    • Wilder Penfield conducted studies during brain surgery
    • for intractable epileptic seizures

    • Direct relationship between a specific area of the brain
    • and a specific experience or behavior
  36. Structural vs. Functional Imaging
    • Structural imaging: Imaging that
    • can only show the static structure of the brain – what is there.
    • Functional imaging: Imaging that
    • shows the activity of the brain – what areas are active under certain
    • circumstances
  37. CT
    • Computerized (Axial) Tomography-Stuctural Imaging
    • -1970
    • -x-ray's pass through the body
    • -show diff densities
    • -Cross-sectional image produced in a single plane (like looking at a slice)
    • -commonly used, inexpensive
    • -head or brain, stoke, bleeding

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