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Major factors that have influenced this loss of biodiversity
- 1.) Overexploitation
- 2.) Habitat destruction
- 3.) Global warming/changes in climate
Process of returning a degraded habitat (caused by human activity) to it former non-degraded state
Ecological principles (both theoretical and empirical)
Conservation Biology draws on principles from?
- 1.) Ecology
- 2.) Population genetics
- 3.) Sociology
- 4.) Anthropology
- 5.) Philosophy/religion
Carrying capacity (k)
is the max # of individuals of any species that the earth can support
"How do we define species?" Biological Species Concept (BSC)- E. Mayr
- Groups of individuals (=pops) that actually or potentially can interbreed and are reproductively isolated from other such groups
- The ability of individuals to mate and produce sexually viable offspring
Problems with BSC
- 1.) Most matings have not been attempted
- 2.) What about species that reproduce asexually
- 3.) Hybridization
"How do we define species?" Phylogenetic Species Concept (PSC)- J.Cracraft
Designates species according to the branching pattern of higher taxa based upon the concept of "shared derived characteristics"
Problems with PSC
- 1.) Character choice can affect the phylogenetic tree
- 2.) Convergent evolution
The acquistion of the same biological trait in unrelated lineages (e.g. wings; bats and birds)
When two or more groups share a characteristic that is not a primitive condition
When two or more groups share a characteristic that is a primitive condition
"How do we define species?" Evolutionary Species Concept (ESC)- E. Wiley
Lineages of ancestral-descendent populations of organisms that are distinct from other such groups and are subject to their own evolutionary pathway and historical fate
One that is in imminent threat of extinction overall or most of its range
Not currently endangered, but likely to become endangered in the near future
(NESARC) National Endangered Species Act Reform Coalition
- Made up of farmers, ranchers, rural electric companies, and rural irrigators.
- Believes too much economic hardships in protecting endangered sub-species or distinct populations
Conservation on the International Trade of Endangered Species of flora and fuana
- Ban commercial international trade of an agreed upon list of endangered species
- Monitors and regulates the international trade of species that may become endangered in the future
Problems with CITES
- Confers protection at the species level
- Relies on the "State of Export" to determine the status of the species in their country
- No international overseeing organization for enforcement
Dusky seaside sparrow
Ammospiza maritima nigrescens
Cape seaside sparrow
Ammospiza maritima mirabilis
Prefered tree of the Dusky seaside sparrow
Romantic Transcendental Conservation Ethic (RTC)
Describes nature in a qusi-religious manner in which habitats should be conserved for its aesthetic and spiritual values
(RTC) is based on literature from?
- Eastern US: H.D. Thoreau and R.W. Emerson
- Western US: J. Muir
Resources Conservation Ethic (RC)
- Diametrically opposed to the RTC
- Divides nature into: good, bad, and useless
(RC) is based on literature from?
J.S. Mills (English intellectual)
Evolutionary-Ecological Conservation Ethic (EEC)
- Promoted by academics/scientists in an attempt to maintain biodiversity
- Intermediate between the RTC and RC
(EEC) is based on literature from?
Aldo Leopold (wrote "A Sand County Almanac")
What organizations uses the RTC?
- The Nature Conservation
- The National Park Service
What organizations uses RC?
- U.S. Forest Service
- Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
What organizations uses EEC?
Academics and scientists
a species with a disproportionately large effect on the ecosystem
two species interaction where one benefits and one isn't affected
Endangered Species Act (1973)
elevated the conservation of species/habitats above the immediate concerns of developers/exploiters
"What is a species?" Typological view
- (=types) species defined based upon the mean value of their traits
- 1.) Plato= "perfect forms"
- 2.) Judeo-christians= "kinds"; species specially created
"What is a species?" Evolutionary view
(=population) variation of the distribution is what defines each species
maximizes the overall good for the max. # of people for the largest period of time
Who was the 1st head of the U.S. Forest Service?
Primary causes of species loss?
- 1.) Overexploitation
- 2.) Habitat destruction
- 3.) Introduced species
Indroduced species are:
- Introduced intentionally: like crops
- Introduced accidentally: Like the Cactoblastic cactorum (moth)
Factors that increase genetic/phenotype variations of a species
- 1.) Distance (as "d" increased, genetic flow decreases)
- 2.) Environment (different populations experience different selective pressures)
- 3.) Time (greater the time seperated creates a increase in unique alleles)
- is a rapid loss of most of the world's species in a relatively short period of time
- (over several generations)
- the keeping or proctecting of something from change, loss, or damage
- ~ to conserve something
Not really a science, but a discipline within sciences
random fixation/loss of alleles in a population
Transfer of genes from one population to another population of the same species
The evolutionary development and history of a species or higher taxonomic grouping of organisms
any gradual change in a particular characteristic of a population of an organism from one end of the gepgraphical range of the population to the other