Conservation Biology- Part 1

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Shyannetw
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103782
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Conservation Biology- Part 1
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2011-09-24 01:00:29
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Conservation
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Information for exam #1
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  1. Major factors that have influenced this loss of biodiversity
    • 1.) Overexploitation
    • 2.) Habitat destruction
    • 3.) Global warming/changes in climate
  2. Restoration
    Process of returning a degraded habitat (caused by human activity) to it former non-degraded state
  3. Restoration uses
    Ecological principles (both theoretical and empirical)
  4. Conservation Biology draws on principles from?
    • 1.) Ecology
    • 2.) Population genetics
    • 3.) Sociology
    • 4.) Anthropology
    • 5.) Philosophy/religion
  5. Carrying capacity (k)
    is the max # of individuals of any species that the earth can support
  6. "How do we define species?" Biological Species Concept (BSC)- E. Mayr
    • Groups of individuals (=pops) that actually or potentially can interbreed and are reproductively isolated from other such groups
    • The ability of individuals to mate and produce sexually viable offspring
  7. Problems with BSC
    • 1.) Most matings have not been attempted
    • 2.) What about species that reproduce asexually
    • 3.) Hybridization
  8. "How do we define species?" Phylogenetic Species Concept (PSC)- J.Cracraft
    Designates species according to the branching pattern of higher taxa based upon the concept of "shared derived characteristics"
  9. Problems with PSC
    • 1.) Character choice can affect the phylogenetic tree
    • 2.) Convergent evolution
  10. Convergent evolution
    The acquistion of the same biological trait in unrelated lineages (e.g. wings; bats and birds)
  11. Synapomorphy
    When two or more groups share a characteristic that is not a primitive condition
  12. Symplesiomorphy
    When two or more groups share a characteristic that is a primitive condition
  13. "How do we define species?" Evolutionary Species Concept (ESC)- E. Wiley
    Lineages of ancestral-descendent populations of organisms that are distinct from other such groups and are subject to their own evolutionary pathway and historical fate
  14. Endangered species
    One that is in imminent threat of extinction overall or most of its range
  15. Threatened species
    Not currently endangered, but likely to become endangered in the near future
  16. (NESARC) National Endangered Species Act Reform Coalition
    • Made up of farmers, ranchers, rural electric companies, and rural irrigators.
    • Believes too much economic hardships in protecting endangered sub-species or distinct populations
  17. CITES-1975
    Conservation on the International Trade of Endangered Species of flora and fuana
    • Ban commercial international trade of an agreed upon list of endangered species
    • Monitors and regulates the international trade of species that may become endangered in the future
  18. Problems with CITES
    • Confers protection at the species level
    • Relies on the "State of Export" to determine the status of the species in their country
    • No international overseeing organization for enforcement
  19. Seaside sparrow
    Ammospiza maritima
  20. Dusky seaside sparrow
    Ammospiza maritima nigrescens
  21. Cape seaside sparrow
    Ammospiza maritima mirabilis
  22. Spartina bakerii
    Prefered tree of the Dusky seaside sparrow
  23. Romantic Transcendental Conservation Ethic (RTC)
    Describes nature in a qusi-religious manner in which habitats should be conserved for its aesthetic and spiritual values
  24. (RTC) is based on literature from?
    • Eastern US: H.D. Thoreau and R.W. Emerson
    • Western US: J. Muir
  25. Resources Conservation Ethic (RC)
    • Diametrically opposed to the RTC
    • Divides nature into: good, bad, and useless
  26. (RC) is based on literature from?
    J.S. Mills (English intellectual)
  27. Evolutionary-Ecological Conservation Ethic (EEC)
    • Promoted by academics/scientists in an attempt to maintain biodiversity
    • Intermediate between the RTC and RC
  28. (EEC) is based on literature from?
    Aldo Leopold (wrote "A Sand County Almanac")
  29. What organizations uses the RTC?
    • The Nature Conservation
    • The National Park Service
  30. What organizations uses RC?
    • U.S. Forest Service
    • Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
  31. What organizations uses EEC?
    Academics and scientists
  32. Keystone species
    a species with a disproportionately large effect on the ecosystem
  33. Commensals
    two species interaction where one benefits and one isn't affected
  34. Endangered Species Act (1973)
    elevated the conservation of species/habitats above the immediate concerns of developers/exploiters
  35. "What is a species?" Typological view
    • (=types) species defined based upon the mean value of their traits
    • Origins:
    • 1.) Plato= "perfect forms"
    • 2.) Judeo-christians= "kinds"; species specially created
  36. "What is a species?" Evolutionary view
    (=population) variation of the distribution is what defines each species
  37. Utilitarian principle
    maximizes the overall good for the max. # of people for the largest period of time
  38. Who was the 1st head of the U.S. Forest Service?
    Gifford Pinchot
  39. Primary causes of species loss?
    • 1.) Overexploitation
    • 2.) Habitat destruction
    • 3.) Introduced species
  40. Indroduced species are:
    • Introduced intentionally: like crops
    • Introduced accidentally: Like the Cactoblastic cactorum (moth)
  41. Factors that increase genetic/phenotype variations of a species
    • 1.) Distance (as "d" increased, genetic flow decreases)
    • 2.) Environment (different populations experience different selective pressures)
    • 3.) Time (greater the time seperated creates a increase in unique alleles)
  42. Mass extinction
    • is a rapid loss of most of the world's species in a relatively short period of time
    • (over several generations)
  43. Conservation
    • the keeping or proctecting of something from change, loss, or damage
    • ~ to conserve something
  44. Conservation Biology
    Not really a science, but a discipline within sciences
  45. Genetic drift
    random fixation/loss of alleles in a population
  46. Gene flow
    Transfer of genes from one population to another population of the same species
  47. Phylogeny
    The evolutionary development and history of a species or higher taxonomic grouping of organisms
  48. Cline
    any gradual change in a particular characteristic of a population of an organism from one end of the gepgraphical range of the population to the other

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