Section II

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103811
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Section II
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2011-09-25 18:57:21
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  1. Medications used to stop or slow the growth of specific microbes
    Antimicrobial
  2. Medications used to stop or slow the growth of bateria in the body
    Antibacterial
  3. Used to assess the magnitude of injury to immune system. Used to determine when to initiate therapy and monitor the effectiveness of HIV and AIDS treatment
    CD4+ Count
  4. disease constantly present in a population
    Endemic
  5. greater than normal number of cases of a disease in an area within a particular period
    Epidemic
  6. contamination of any body tissue and organ by an invading organism or foreign substance, such as a microorganism
    Infection
  7. Achieved by infection or vaccination
    Active immunity
  8. When immunity is transferred from an immune donor (mother to newborn)
    Passive Immunity
  9. The largest of the microorganisms
    Protozoa
  10. Flesh-eating disease or flesh-eating bacteria due to group A streptococcus
    Necrotizing Fasciitis
  11. Infection of the fluid around the spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain. Often affects children and young adults
    Bacterial Meningitis
  12. Caused by a spirochete the 1st symptom is a rash, followed by flu like symptom. Will kill you
    Lyme's Disease
  13. Symptoms are red, tender spots under the skin of the fingers know as Osler's nodes. Also include fever, weakness and heart murmur caused by mouth bacteria that make a home on the cardiac valves
    Endocarditis
  14. a fever that happens to people 4 to 18 followed by streptococcal, or after untreated strep throat
    Rheumatic Fever
  15. Caused by pathogens S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and mycoplasma
    Otitis Media
  16. refers to pneumonia acquired in common places like school, work, or the gym
    Community-acquired pneumonia
  17. pneumonia acquired in medical facilities
    Hospital-acquired
  18. A type of pneumonia that occurs when foreign matter is inhaled into the lungs
    Aspiration pneumonia
  19. A pneumonia acquired in a any social environment
    Nosocomial
  20. Symptoms include skaing, chills, high fever, sweating, shortness of breath, chest pain, and a cough that produces thick, greenish or yellowish phlegm.
    Pneumonia
  21. A dry, non- productive cough may indicate a viral infection instead of bacteria
    pneumonia
  22. Microbes that can grow in the water of air-conditioning cooling towers and have been found to inhabit the water lines of many hospitals causes what?
    Legionnaires Disease
  23. C. difficileproduces toxins that cause diarrhea. C. difficile grows due to lack of competition. If diarrhea begins a few days after starting certain antibiotics, immediately contact the physician
    Clostridium Difficile
  24. Known as the "silent" disease. Can lead to infertility, symptoms might occur 1 to 3 weeks after exposure
    Chlamydia
  25. Primary stage is a signle chancre sore that is firm, round, small and painless. Secondary is a rash and lesions, then can lay dormant for years.
    Syphilis
  26. Incubation period averages 3 weeks or 2 weeks to several months
    Syphilis
  27. The causative agent is Treponema Pallidum
    Syphilis
  28. Chills, fever, HA, fatigue, sinus pain, gastrointestinal upset, and general muscular aches.
    Influenza
  29. Measles appear as a macular rash, beginning on the face and spreading to the trunk and extremities. Highly contagious that progesses to pneumonia secondary bacterial infections, or encephalitis
    Measles
  30. An acute infection of the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, and nerves. Best known as a cause of paralysis however paralysis only affects less than 1% of infected.
    Poliomyelitis
  31. Relatively mild childhood disease. Chickenpox. Characterized by "itchy" vesicular lesions that become encrusted on the skin of the face, thorax, and back.
    Herpes Variella-Zoster Virus
  32. Caused by a human papilloma virus, sexually transmitted
    Genital Warts
  33. Vesicular lesions, "cold sores" or "fever blister" usually appear on the oral mucous membrane
    Herpes Simplex Virus-1
  34. Caused by vesicular lesions, usually in the genital area, that are preceded by a prodromal burning sensation
    Herpes Simplex Virus-2
  35. Symptoms are typicall malaise, HA, and low grade fever. Preced the development of the more specific signs of tonsillitis and/or pharyngitis, cervical lymph node enlargement and tenderness, and moderate to high fever
    Monomucleosis
  36. May lead to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
    HIV
  37. An acute infectious disease that usually results in fatal encephalitis if left untreated
    Rabies
  38. These are responsible for a variety of infections worldwide. Those endemic to the U.S. are malariea, amebic dysentery, giardiases, and trichomoniases.
    Protozoa
  39. _____________ ___________ infections in immune-compromised patients are pneumocystis and toxoplasmosis
    Common Portozoan
  40. Symptoms are fever, confusion, and coma
    Cerebral Toxoplasmosis
  41. Caused by an mosquito that bites an infected human becoming a vector. The mosquito then bites an uninfected human and infects them with this disease
    Malaria
  42. Often co-infection with gonorrhea, resulting in a discharge that is frothy, greenish-yellow and characterized by a foul odor
    Trichomoniasis
  43. a protoza parasite that causes trichomoniases
    Trichomonas vaginalis
  44. These infest the lower intestinal region and colon and are often seen exiting the anus
    Pinworms
  45. These infest the upper intestinal region, usually causing abdominal symptoms, cramping, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting
    Roundworms
  46. PinwormsRoundwormshookwormswhipworms
    Nematodes
  47. Lice live off the blood of the host
    Pediculosis
  48. Infections that are caused by dermatophytes, yeasts, and molds
    Fungal Diseases
  49. Three groups of fungal diseases
    superficial, subcutaneous, and systemic
  50. ringworm of the face
    Tinea capitis
  51. ringworm of the scalp
    Tinea capitis
  52. Body ringworm
    Tinea corporis
  53. Ringworm of the groin
    Tinea cruris or jock itch
  54. Ringworm of the foot
    Tinea Pedis athlete's foot
  55. Nail ringowrm, also known as onychomycosis
    Tinea unguim
  56. LInked to a range of health conditions and symptoms vary. Symptoms can include runny nose, itchy eyes, HA and dizziness
    Molds
  57. Can be spread throughout the body and involve any organ, but predominantly affects the central nervous system
    Cryptococcus
  58. Found worldwide in soil and on dired pigeon droppings
    Cryptococcosis
  59. An antibiotic that is effective against a large number and type of the most common bacteria and some other types of microorganisms
    Broad spectrum antibiotic
  60. An antibiotic that has a limited activity against a few specific microorganisms
    Narrow spectrum antibiotic
  61. Drug of choice for Neisseria gonorrhea and Neisseria meningitis
    Ceftriaxone Sodium - Rocephin
  62. Polymicrobial bacterial infections in immunocompromised patients
    Cefepime - Maxipime
  63. Used for persons allergic to penicillinSHOULD NOT BE USED IN CHILDREN AGE 18 & UNDER DUE TO THE POTENTIAL TO CAUSE TOOTH DISCOLORATION
    Tetracyclines
  64. Take on an empty stomach with no milk, antacides or iron preparations within 1 hour of this medication, avoid the sun
    Tetracycline - Sumycin
  65. This drug is most often used to treat acne
    Minocycline - Minoclin
  66. The agent prescribed for malaria prophylaxis, anthrax, tularemia, and the plague, rocky mountain spotted fever and inflammatory acne
    Doxycycline - Vibramycin
  67. treats bacterial infections including chronic bronchitis, acture sinusitis, community-acquired pneumonia
    Telithromycin - Ketek
  68. Side effects of this topical or injectable drug are ototoxicity, nephrotxoicity
    Gentamicin - Garamycin
  69. Used for bowel sterilization or wound irrigation
    Neomycin - Mycifradin
  70. Antibiotic for primarily gm bacterial infections; anthrax
    Ciprofloxacin - Cipro
  71. Topical for gm+ organisms including MRSA that treats Mercer,
    Mupirocin - Bactroban
  72. A drug that requires that you immediately notify the physician if diarrhea occurs
    Clindamycin - Cleocin
  73. Drug of choice for methicillin-resistant staph aureaus (MRSA)If drug is administered to quickly patient will go into red-man syndrome
    Vancomycin - Vancocin
  74. Must avoid tyramine containing foodsMay cause thrombocytopenia, pseudomembranous colitis
    Linezolid- Zyvox
  75. Antimicrobial used in urinary tract infactions, otitis media prophylaxis in children
    Sulfisoxazole - Grantrisin
  76. Must take with plenty of water, take until gone, avoid sunlight, refrigerate and shake well before using
    Sulfisoxazole & Erythromycin Ethylscuccinate - Pediazole
  77. An antimicrobial used in Urinary Tract Infections
    Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim- Bactrim/Septra
  78. May cause discoloration of urine (orange) or feces, take with food or milk
    Phenazopyridine - Pyridium
  79. Drugs used for Antileprosy
    Rifampin -Rifadin Dapson - Aczone Thalidomide - Thalomid
  80. Follow the STEP program
    Thalidomide - Thalomid
  81. Thalidomide
    Thalomid
  82. Dapson
    Aczone
  83. Rifampin
    Rifadin Rimactane
  84. Virus that is more likely to mutate
    Type A
  85. Virus less likely to mutate
    Type B
  86. The best prevention against influenza A & B
    trivalent inactivated vaccine - Fluzone
  87. Prevents and treats influenza
    Amantadine - Symmetrel Oseltamivir -Tamiflu Zanamivir - Relenza
  88. Amantadine
    Symmetrel
  89. Oseltamivir
    Tamiflu
  90. Zanamivir
    Relenza
  91. Acyclovir
    Zovirax
  92. Treatments for Herpes-2
    Acyclovir - Zovirax Valacyclovir - Valtrex
  93. 1% solution for treatment of HSV-1, HSV-2, and vaccinia virus keratitis or keratoconjunctivitis
    Trifluridine - Viroptic
  94. Chronic hepatitis B and C are treated with an antiviral agent ____________________ and/or an immunmodulator______________
    • Ribaviran, Abacavir
    • Interferon, pegylated
  95. Viruses transmitted by arthropods, rodent, or humans. Major symptoms are fever, malaise, HA, and hemorrhagic signs
    Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
  96. Chemicals that kill microorganisms or inhibit their growth on living tissue
    Antiseptic
  97. Chemicals which destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms on inanimate objects
    Disinfectant
  98. Sudsing base is used as a cleanser for surgical hand antisepsis, preoperative skin preparation, routine hand hygiene in halth-care personnel, and skin wound and general skin cleansing
    Chlorhexidine Gluconate - Hibiclens
  99. Chlorhexidine Gluconate
    Hibiclens
  100. The main mode of transimission is from the infected female anopheles mosquito Symptoms then progress to chills, fever, sweating, prostration, mild jaundice, swollen liver and spleen and anemia
    Transmission of malaria
  101. This drug has been implicated in cases of psychiatric illness, increased seizure activity and cardia conduction abnormalities
    Mefloquine - Lariam
  102. Mefloquine
    Lariam
  103. Used for post exposure to malaria, prophylaxis/treatment of other biological threats
    Doxycycline = Vibramycin
  104. Inactive form of E. Histolytica
    Cyst
  105. Active Form of E. Histolytica
    Trophozoite
  106. Symptoms include frequent watery stools containing blood or mucous, dehydration, fever, abdominal pain and cramping, and an enlarged and tender liver
    Amebiasis
  107. Phenazopyridine
    Pryidium
  108. Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim
    Bactrim/Septra
  109. Sulfisoxazole & Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate
    Pediazole
  110. Sulfisoxazole
    Gantrisin
  111. Linezolid
    Zyvox
  112. Vancomycin
    Vancocin
  113. Clindamycin
    Cleocin
  114. Mupirocin
    Bactroban
  115. Ciprofloxacin
    Cipro
  116. Levofloxacin
    Levaquin
  117. Neomycin
    Mycifradin
  118. Gentamicin
    Garamycin
  119. Telithromycin
    Ketek
  120. Azithromycin
    Zithromax
  121. Erythromycin Base
    E-Mycin Ery-tab
  122. Doxycycline
    Vibramycin
  123. Minocycline
    Minocin
  124. Tetracycline
    Sumycin
  125. Cefepime
    Maxipime
  126. Ceftriaxone Sodium
    Rocephin
  127. Cefotetan
    Cefotan
  128. Cefazolin
    Kefzol Ancef
  129. Ampicillin/Sulbactam
    Unasyn
  130. Amoxicillin and Potassium Clavulanate
    Augmentin
  131. Amebiasis infection of the intestines caused by parasites
    Side Effects include metallic taste and disulfiram
    Metronidazole - Flagyl
  132. The active form of E. Histolytica
    Trophozoite
  133. Terbinafine
    Lamisil
  134. Zidovudine
    Retrovir
  135. The drug class that is bacteriostatic
    take on an empty stomach w/plenty of water.
    Take all and avoid sun
    Sulfonamides
  136. Mupirocin - Bactroban
    Cacitracin - Baciguent
    Miscellaneous Agents
  137. Levofloxacin - Levaquin
    Ciprofloxacin - Cipro
    Fluoroquinolnes
  138. Synthetic, broad spectrum antibacterial agents related to nalidixic acid & cinoxacin
    Fluoroquinolones
  139. Neomycin -Mycifradin
    Gentamicin - Garamycin
    Aminoglycosides
  140. Bactericidal and broad spectum, principle use is treatment of gram negative infections
    Side effects are Nephrotoxidity and Oxotoxicity
    Aminoglycosides
  141. Bacteriostatic and narrow spectrum but also cover atypical organisms (mycoplasm & legionella in respiratory tract infections and chlamydia)
    Macrolides
  142. Erythromycin Base - E-Mycin, Ery-tab
    Azithromycin - Zirthromax
    Clarithromycin - Biaxin
    Macrolides
  143. The steril Aminoglycoside, injectable or topical
    Gentamicin - Garamycin
  144. Oral Aminoglycoside
    Neomycin - Mycifradin
  145. Penicillinase-resistant PCN's
    • Nafcillin - Unipen
    • Dicloxacillin - Dynapen

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