blood

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Author:
lkorkowski
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103815
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blood
Updated:
2011-09-23 10:25:23
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blood
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blood lecture
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  1. Which WBC's are granular and what is their function?
    • All the phils!
    • Neutrophils (60-70%), Eosinophils (2-4%), Basophils (1%)
    • Phagocytosis and inflammatory response
  2. Who can AB- donate to and receive from?
    • Donate to AB-, AB+
    • Receive from AB-, A-, B-, O-
  3. What happens in the coagulation phase of hemostasis?
    • Clotting from coagulation
    • Fibrin fibers branch like a dam
    • (Requires clotting factors from the liver and calcium from the blood)
  4. What are thrombocytes?
    Platelets
  5. What is a high RBC count?
    Polycythemia
  6. What is platelet aggregation?
    When platelets stick together
  7. What does the prothrombinase intrinsic pathway consist of?
    • Activation of platelets by collagen (blood trauma)
    • Platelets factor
    • Clotting factor X (10)
  8. What 2 stem cells does the hemocytoblast become?
    • Lymphiod stem cell
    • Myeloid stem cell
  9. What does the nucleus of a lymphocyte look like?
    • Spherical nucleus
    • agranular
    • fx = immunity
    • 20-30%
  10. What is a high WBC count?
    Leukocytosis
  11. What is a erythrocyte?
    • Red Blood Cell (RBC)
    • it has no nucleus
    • contains 250 million hemoglobin molecules
  12. What is erythropoiesis?
    Erythrocyte (RBC) formation
  13. Who can O- donate to and receive from?
    • Donate to anyone!!! Universal donor
    • Receive from only O-
  14. What is the transport molecule for iorn?
    Transferrin
  15. Where do the 3 requirements for RBC formation come from?
    • supplied by regular diet
    • recycled from cells and stored in the liver and spleen
    • Amino acids, iron, vitamin B12
  16. What does the prothrombinase extrinsic pathway consist of?
    • Damage tissue (tissue trauma)
    • Tissue factor
    • Clotting factor VII (7)
  17. What are albumins and their function?
    • Make up 60% of the 7% of plasma protiens
    • Maintains osmotic pressure of the plasma
  18. Who can O+ donate to and receive from?
    • Donate to A+, B+, AB+, O+
    • Receive from O+, O-
  19. Who can AB+ donate to and receive from?
    • Donate to AB+ only!!!
    • Reveive from anyone! Universal recipient!!!
  20. What is thrombopoietin?
    The hormone that stimulates platelet formation
  21. What 2 blasts can a myeloid stem cell become?
    • Monoblast
    • Myeloblast
  22. What are plasma proteins and what are their percents?
    • 7% of plasma
    • Albumins 60%
    • Globulins 35%
    • Fibrinogen 4%
    • Regulatory proteins 1%
  23. What is Hemostasis?
    Blood clotting to stop bleeding
  24. What is the name of the cell when the nucleus is ejected from the RBC before it enters circulation?
    • Reticulocyte
    • then to a mature RBC
  25. What is the composition of plasma and the percentages.
    • Water 92%
    • Plasma proteins 7%
    • Other solutes 1%
  26. What is a leukocyte?
    White Blood Cell (WBC)
  27. What does the nucleus of a neutrophil look like and what is its function?
    • Segmented nucleus
    • Granulated
    • Phagocytosis
    • 60-70%
  28. What is a hemocytoblast?
    The mother cell of every cell in the blood
  29. What is an embolism?
    A blockage of a vessel due to a clot
  30. What happens to RBC's when they die?
    • Hemolysis occurs in the blood
    • Liver and spleen phagocytes eat them
  31. In what 2 places does WBC formation take place?
    • Lymph tissues for lymphocytes
    • Red bone marrow for monocytes, neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils
  32. Who can B- donate to and receive from?
    • Donate to B-, B+, AB-, AB+
    • Receive from B-, O-
  33. What does the hemocytoblast turn into to make platelets?
    • Hemocytoblast
    • Myeloid stem cell
    • Megakaryocyte
    • Platelets (Thrombocytes)
  34. What is a low WBC count?
    Leukopenia
  35. What does the nucleus of a monocyte look like and what is it's function?
    • Kidney shaped
    • agranular
    • tissue macropahges
    • 4-8%
  36. If the bilirubin atays in the intestine what does it turn into?
    • Stercobilin
    • Shit!
  37. What cell does a monoblast become?
    Monocyte
  38. What happens to the hemoglobin in dead BRC's?
    • Splits into heme and globin
    • Amino acids of the globin is recycled
    • Heme splits releasing the iron which is recycled
    • Heme to bilirubin to urobilin to urine
    • or
    • Heme to bilirubin to stercobilin to shit
  39. What cell does a lymphiod stem cell become?
    Lymphocyte
  40. What does counadin (warfarin) do?
    • (anticoagulant)
    • Antagonist of Vitamin K
  41. What is a low RBC count?
    Anemia
  42. What is a blood clot that is attached to a vessel wall called?
    Thrombus
  43. What is the lifespan of a RBC?
    80-120 days
  44. What happens in the platelets phase of hemostasis?
    Platelets plug formation
  45. What is prothrombinase common pathway?
    Factor VII + Factor X = Prothrombinase
  46. What is jaundice?
    Bilirubin leaks into blood
  47. What is sickle cell disease?
    Abnormal RBC in the shape of a moon
  48. What does a hemocytoblast produce to make a RBC?
    Myeloid stem cell
  49. What is a embolus?
    A moving clot
  50. What is the RBC mother cell?
    Hemocytoblast
  51. What is the storage molecule for iron?
    Ferritin
  52. What is thrombocytopenia?
    Low platelet count
  53. What is hemophilia?
    The lack of blood coagulation
  54. What organ excreted thrombopoitin?
    The liver
  55. If bilirubin goes into the kidneys what does it turn into?
    • Urobilin
    • Urine
  56. What WBC's are agranular and what is their function?
    • The cytes
    • Lymphocyte and Monocyte
    • Antigen-antibody reactions
    • macrophages
  57. What is fibrinogen?
    • Makes up 4% of the total 7% of plasma proteins
    • It is essential for clotting blood
  58. What is Leukemia?
    Disease that cause high WBC's
  59. What are the 3 requirements for RBC formation?
    • 1. Iron (Heme)
    • 2. Amino Acids (Globin)
    • 3. Vitamin B12 (Maturation)
  60. What is a transfusion reaction?
    When blood types are not compatible the oppising antibodies will agglutinate and hemolysis will occur and fatal circulatory shock occurs leading to death
  61. What does Hemoglobin consist of?
    • 4 irons that bind to 4 Heme
    • Each iron molecule binds with 1 O2 molecule
    • Makes 2 alpha and 2 beta chains
    • Globin is the protein
  62. Name the 5 WBC's and the differential?
    • 1. Neutrophils 60-70%
    • 2. Lymphocytes 20-30%
    • 3. Monocytes 4-8%
    • 4. Eosinophils 2-4%
    • 5. Basophile 1%
    • Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
  63. What does the nucleus of a basophil look like?
    • Bilobed nucleus
    • Granulated
    • Big purple lump
    • Fx = inflammation
    • 1%
  64. What is the function of (homoglobin) a RBC?
    • Hemoglobin transports 97% of O2
    • Hemoglobin transports 23% of CO2
    • Hemoglobin releases nitric oxide (regulation of blood flow)
  65. What is Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN)?
    • When mom is Rh- and dad and baby are Rh+
    • the mother must go thru desensitization before the next pregnancy or the 2nd baby will die
  66. What is a differential?
    The percent of each type of WBC
  67. Who can B+ donate to and receive from?
    • Donate to B+, AB+
    • Receive from B+, B-, O+, O-
  68. What are globulins?
    • 35% of the 7% of plamsma proteins
    • Its functions is immunity
  69. What happens in the vascular phase of hemostasis?
    • Vascular spasm
    • Decreased loss of blood
    • Contraction of smooth muscle of the injured vessel
  70. What are the functions of leukocytes?
    • Immune response
    • Phagocytosis
  71. What 6 cells can a myeloid stem cell become?
    • 1. Erythrocyte (RBC)
    • 2. Thrombocytes (platelets)
    • 3. Basophils
    • 4. Eosinophils
    • 5. Neutrophils
    • 6. Monocytes
  72. What is a chemical that prevents blood from clotting?
    Anticoagulants
  73. What cells does a myeloblast become?
    • ALL PHILS!
    • Neutrophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
  74. What is fibrinolysis?
    Clot dissolving
  75. What are the 3 phases of hemostasis?
    • 1. Vascular phase
    • 2. Platelets phase
    • 3. Coagulation phase
  76. What does the nucleus of a eosinophil look like and what is its function?
    • Bilobed nucleus
    • Granulated
    • Antiinflammatory
    • 2-4%
  77. What are regulatory proteins?
    • Makes 1% of the 7% of plasma proteins
    • Function is enxymes and hormones
  78. What is the function of platelets?
    Platelet plug formation in clotting blood
  79. Who can A- donate to and receive from?
    • Donate to A-, A+, AB-, AB+
    • Receive from A-, O-
  80. What is blood type?
    The prenence or absence of the A and B antigens on the RBC surface
  81. Who can A+ donate to and receive from?
    • Donate to A+, AB+
    • Receive from A+, A-, O+, O-
  82. What are the 3 stages of the coagulation phase of hemostasis?
    • 1. Formation of prothrombinase
    • 2. Formation of thrombin
    • 3. Formation of fibrin fibers
  83. What is hemopoiesis?
    The formation of formed elements in the blood
  84. What does heparin do?
    • (anticoagulant)
    • Decreases thrombin production
  85. What is the name of the enzyme that breaks up a blood clot?
    • Tissue Plasminogen Activator (TPA)
    • Activates plasmin which eats the blood clot
  86. What is the stimulation process of RBC formation?
    • 1. Decreased RBC's
    • 2. Tissue hypoxia
    • 3. Kidneys excrete erythropoietin hormone
    • 4. Bone marrow stimulation
    • 5. Production of proerythrocytes
    • 6. Erythrocytes
    • and repeat untill it is ok again
  87. What does EDTA and CPD do?
    • (anticoagulants)
    • tying up and removing calcium

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