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a process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of a past experience
3 types of learning
- Classical conditioning - associating stimuli
- Operant conditioning - associating behaviors and consequences
- Observational learning - imitating the actions of others
- Pavlo discovered c.c by observing a dog start to salivate before food was put on it's togue.
- He rang the bell, gave the dog food until just the sound of the bell produced the dog to salivate
natural stimulus that reflexively produces a response without prior learning (food)
Unlearned, reflexive response (saliva)
originally neutral but comes to elicit a reflexive response (bell)
learned reflexive response to a previously neutral stimulus (salivating at the bell)
Factors that influence strength of c.c
- 1. More frequently the c.s and the u.s were paired, the stronger the association
- 2. Timing - if c.s was presented immediatly before the u.s, the stronger the association 1/2 second = optimum
When stimuli that are similar to the original c.s also elicit the c.r (sound of low-pitched tone)
If the c.s (bell) was presented without the u.s (food) the c.r (salivating at the bell) gradually declined
reappearance of a previously extinguisted c.r over a period of time with out exposure to the c.s
- watson viewed/emphasized the study of behavior rather than the study of subjective mental processes
- - thought that all human behavior was due to conditioning and learning- nothing was inherited
Lil albert study
- watson and rosalie rayner classically conditioned lil albert to fear rats by presenting him with a rat then immediatly banging a loud noise behind him. After just 7 pairings, the rat alone caused him fear.
- - unethical due to them not "extinguishing" his fear of rats also involved other furry animals and certain textures. Modified him throughout his life
- Neutral stimulus - rat
- Unconditioned stimulus - loud noise
- unconditioned response - provoked fear
- if specific enviromental cues are repeatedly paired with a drugs administration, they can become conditioned stimulii
- - smell of coffee can cause alertness
- Taste aversions - classically conditioned dislike for and avoidance of a particular food that develops when an organism become ill after eating it.
- - experimented with givingt rats flavored h2o then injecting them with a drug that made them sick hours later
- - against c.c because of the time (response may occur hours after stimulus) and the amount of pairing (usually only 1 time)
Law of effect
learning principle by edward thorndike that responses followed by a satisfying affect become strengthened and are more likely to recur in a particular situation, responses followed by a dissatisfying affect are weakened and less likely to occur
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