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What is heart failure?
The reduce ability of the heart to pump blood
What is pericarditis?
Inflammation of the pericardium
What is bradycardia?
Heart rate of less than 60 BPM
What are the 3 layers of the heart wall?
- 1. Epicardium (outer layer)
- 2. Myocardium (muslce)
- 3. Endocardium (inner layer)
Where is the anterior surface of the heart located?
behind the sternum and ribs
What is the fibrous pericardium made of and what is its function?
- Made of dense irregular connective tissue
- Protects the heart
- Anchor the heart
- Prevents overstretching of the heart
Name the Semilunar Valves and thier location?
- Aortic Semilunar Valve is between the left ventricle and the aorta
- Pulmonary Semilunar Valve is between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk
What are the 3 factors affecting stroke volume?
- 1. Preload (end diastolic volume) the amt. of blood left in the ventricles at the end of the diastole phase before contraction
- 2. Afterload - Diastolic blood pressure in the aorta and pulmonary trunk before ventricle eject into it
- 3. Contraction force - cardiac contractile muscles (how strong the heart is)
What is cardiac output?
The amount of blood ejected by the heart in 1 minute
What are the 2 types of cardiac muscle?
- 1. Contractile Cardiac Muscle (myocardium)
- 2. Autorythmic Cardiac Muscle (self excitable, heart pacemaker, conduction system)
What is the SA node?
- The pacemaker
- Spontaneously depolarizing producing a normal sinus rhythm
- Action potential (cardiac impulse) goes thru conduction system into contractile cardiac muscle cells
What are the ECG waves?
- 1. P wave = atrial depolarization
- 2. QRS complex = ventricular depolarization
- 3. T wave = ventricular repolarization
What is stroke volume?
The amount of blood ejected each beat
In ventricular contraction which AV/SL valves are open and which are closed?
- AV valves close
- SL valves open
What is Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)?
Narrowing of the coronary arteries
What is ischemia?
Decreased blood flow to the tissues
What is the cardiac inhibitory center?
- The BRAKE
- Parasympathetic impulses
- Secreting acetylcholine
- Decreases heart rate
Where is the base of the heart located?
Upward and to the right
Where is the apex of the heart located?
Downward and points left
What are the names of the 6 coronary circulation veins?
- 1. Anterior Cardiac Vein
- 2. Posterior Cardiac Vein
- 3. Middle Cardiac Vein
- 4. Small Cardiac Vein
- 5. Great Cardiac Vein
- 6. Coronary Sinus
Where is the heart located?
In the mediastinum
What are arrhythmias?
Irregularity of heart rhythm
What are the names of the 2 main ateries and the 4 smaller arteries of the coronary circulation?
- 1. Right Coronary Artery
- Marginal Branch
- Posterior Interventricular Branch
- 2. Left Coronary Artery
- Circumflex Branch
- Anterior Interventricular Branch
What is diastole?
The heart muscle in the relaxation phase
What are the names of the AV valves and their location?
- Tricuspid Valve - between the Right atrium and ventricle
- Bicuspid Valve or Mitral Valve between the Left atrium and ventricel
What are the ECG intervals?
- P-Q interval (SA node to AV bundle)
- Q-T interval (time for both ventricular depolatization and repolarization)
What is angina pectoris?
What is systole?
Heart muscle contraction phase
What is a myocardial infarction (MI)?
Loss of living heart muscle cells
Name the steps in one cardiac cycle?
- 1. Artial & ventricular diastole (relax) (ventricles fill 70%)
- 2. Atrial systole (contract) (completion of ventricular filling)
- 3. Ventricular systole (contract) (AV valves closes (lubb sound)) (s1 sound) (SL valve opens 50-60% of blood ejected)
- 4. Atrial & ventricular diastole (relax) (SL valve close (dubb sound)) (s2 sound)
- and repeat!
What is atherosclerosis?
Hardening of arteries with out without thickening of arterial walls
How long does 1 cardiac cycle take?
What is arteriosclerosis?
Thickening of arterial walls
What is Asystole?
- Cardiac standstill
- No contraction
Where does the inferior surface of the heart rest?
On the diaphragm
What is tachycardia?
rapid heart beat of over 100 BPM
In ventricular relaxation which AV/SL are open and which are close?
- AV valves are open
- SL valves are close
What is the Cardiac Acceleratory Center?
- The ACCELERATOR
- Sympathetic impulses secreting norepinehrine to increase the heart rate.
What is the serous pericarduim and what are the names of its layers?
- Thin delicate membrance
- Parietal layer (outer) (pericardial cavity with pericardial fluid)
- Visceral layer (epicardium)
Name the 5 steps of the conduction system?
- 1. Sinoatrial node in the right atrium starts the heart beat
- 2. Atrioventricular node has a short delay and then send signal to the atrioventricular bundle
- 3. AV bundle (bundle of His) receives the signal from the AV node
- 4. Right and Left bundle branches send signal to each ventricle
- 5. Purkinje fibers spread the signal through ventricles
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