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European countries wanted goodies from the Far East. The Muslims had a monopoly on this. Explain the supply chain that was used to transport goods.
China, Indonesia, etc.->Middle East->Italy (they had a monopoly)->European merchants.
The Portuguese wanted to make things cheaper by going to India on their own (cutting the Muslims out of the equation). Who was in charge of this movement? What innovations did he bring to the table.
- Prince Henry the Navigator (king's brother)
- He had a think tank for experts (school of navigation) and he installed defense mechanisms on his ships to defend against attackers. He had his men explore gradually to map currents and terrain.
Henry the Navigator did not sail on expeditions. He died before the Portuguese reached Asia. However, he thought of an ingenious way to raise money. What was it and what did it lead to?
- He had his sailors go on a crusade. They came from north Africa, met with Prestor John, and wiped out the Muslims. Then, the Crusading Orders funded several of the voyages. These voyages eventually became self-sufficient through trade with Africa (slaves/sugar). So they paid back the Crusading Orders.
- They then asked people to invest. This signifies the advent of partnerships and joint-stock companies.
Who was the first man to reach the Cape of Good Hope (from Europe). Btdubs, this is the tip of Africa. Who was the first to make it to India?
- Bartholomew Diaz
- Vasco De Gama
The Portuguese chose to make trade settlements. They DID NOT colonize Africa. When Portuguese ships were opposed by Arabs (after Henry the Navigator died), what did the government do?
They invested more money in defense mechanisms and people often defrauded the government by not paying taxes so the government lost a lot of money.
When did Christopher Columbus set sail?
Where was he from, and what countries did he ask to permit his voyage?
- He wanted to sail W to get E. He was from Italy. Portugal said no because they knew their ships weren't well-outfitted. France was busy fighting somebody, and Spain was fighting with the Muslims for Granada. Isabella of Castille said to wait until they won. When they won, he sailed north of South America.
Who found America (specifically NA)? When did he find it?
What was the Demarcation Line?
What was the Treaty of Tortesillas?
- Spain and Portugal were conquerin' it up in SA, and they asked the Pope to help them divide stuff up. So this line determined who got what.
- The Treaty of Tortesillas moved the line slightly west giving Portugal more land and Spain less.
What European discovered the Kellypacificocean?
We all know that Ponce de Leon landed in Florida. OKAY? So what did Magellan do?
Who was the first one to circumnavigate the globe?
- Magellan tried to go south of SA to get to Asia. He succeeded but was killed in the Phillipines.
- Sebastian Elcano
What did Hernan Cortez do (up until he landed in Mexico)?
He sailed around Haiti and Mexico and called it Extrema Dura. Then he eventually got permission to sail to Mexico, even though the Governor of Cuba said no.
What did Hernan Cortez do after landing in Mexico?
He landed in Veracruz and found a lost Spaniard to intepret for him. He found the Aztechs in Technotitlan. He exploited the fact that they were despised by other tribes (thanks to Montezuma) and he allied with them.
What did Montezuma/the Aztecs think of Cortez?
Montezuma thought he was a god. But he wasn't really sure so he tried to make Cortez leave. He couldn't do this because they burned all the boats.
Explain the relationship between Cabeza de Vaca and Cortez.
Cabeza de Vaca was the leader of the Cuban forces that came to remove Cortez and his men. Cortez did a sneak attack and killed CDV and turned his men to his side.
Who replaced Montezuma? How did the war against Cortez and his men go?
- The Aztecs lost. The Spanish knocked down the Aztec capitol.
Who was the first European to cross the Mississippi?
Hernando De Soto
Explain what Francisco Pizarro did in South America?
He discovered the Incans (Peru) in the midst of a civil war. The winner was Atahualpa. Pizarro wanted to control him so he trapped him (in the whole ordeal where there were two important people and a bunch of horses and one was killed but Atahualpa was captured after he refused to receive the bible) and demanded a room full of gold. Pizarro got the gold but killed Atahualpa.
Explain the Black Legend of Spanish Exploration.
Explorers went to SA and terrorized everyone (esp. in Caribbean). The population dropped dramatically because of smallpox, European-instilled terror, and horrible conditions in agriculture. People often committed suicide in the Caribbean because their life sucked so much on sugar cane plantations.
The clergy came to the Caribbean farms and South American settlements to convert natives; however, they all died! Then __________ wrote a series of letters to the king about the bad conditions which were then published. The crown used to take 1/5 of profits, but they started ___________________________.
- Bartholome de las Casas
- Sending officials over (viceroys) to ensure fair treatment. They set up a whole beurocracy, and it was actually helpful.
Silver and gold caused ___________ in Spain. Central trading power switched from ____________ to __________. This benefitted Lisbon and Dutch cities (Amsterdam and Antwerp. Some new commoddities were introduced to Europe such as _____, ______, ______, _______, ________, and _______.
- The Mediterranean
- The Atlantic
- Tobacco, maize, tea, coffee, chocolate, potatoes
Sources of gold in Spain during the late 1400s, early 1500s were:
Portugal, Americas, and even increased production in Europe.
Demand, price, and population increased in Europe as trade in the Americas flourished. From 1550-1600, prices doubled. As a result there was increased __________. People moved from _____ to ______.
- Poverty, hunger, disease.
How did nobles attempt to keep serfs on their land?
They offered them a money contract that lasted for a certain amount of time (serfs paid a fee to use land for X # of years) instead of a work contract which took a portion of earnings. Nobles were still losing money, so they used enclosures to fence off common land and they decreased the amount of land given to Serfs. They alsomade shorter contracts.
Name the five preconditions of capitalism. Describe them.
- 1. Positive attitude toward commerce: People wanted to work and gain money. John Calvin encoruaged work as part of Protestantism. Monastic orders (St. Benedict's followers) worke hard in monasteries. They farmed and made goods which they then sold. They invested profites in the community. People didn't spend money like crazy (they did during the black death) they saved and invested.
- 2. The upper class spent money on luxuries: Clergy said that it was okay to enjoy the fruits of labor. The rich people wanted goods from foreign countries which made the economy driven by money, not just trade. They didn't just sit on their money, they spent it.
- 3. More forms of capital emerged: Not just land-money, ships, factories
- 4. Impersonal market with regional trade: People didn't have relationships with their partners or workers as much so they didn't care about ripping them off for more profit.
- 5. Changing of banks: Banks collected, transferred, and used money like never before.
What was mercantilism. What was its effect?
It was the attempt of the state to control all aspects of the economy. It got people to trade outside of the area (exports/imports).
What is bullionism? What is its significance?
- It is when you measure wealth in gold and silver.
- Spain and Portugal hoarded gold and people had no place to work. Their export value was greater than their import value.
What did Henry VII do for England's economy?
- He gave subsidies and created monopolies to encourage new companies.
- He made a protective tariff that inhibited imports and encouraged people to buy local stuff.
- He made all colonial trade go through English ships.
- He forbade skilled workers from leaving England and sharing their secrets.
Charles V was of the hapsburg family. He was the son of Philip the handsome and Joan the Mad. He became king of _____ at 16 and ______ at 19. He got this second position by ____________. He lead a crusade against the __________ and defended his religion _________ against _______.
- Holy Roman Emperor
- Paying his way in with money borrowed from banking families (e.g. Fuggers)
- Ottoman Turks
- Martin Luther and Protestants
Name Charles V's territories. How did he rule all of this?
- Netherlands (including Belgium)
- America (south)
- Parts of Italy (Naples, Sicily, Florence, Genoa)
- He used Regents to rule territories on a day-to-day basis.
How did Charles V control the Pope?
He was the Holy Roman Emperor (HRE), and he also had his army sack Rome.
Charles V grew up in the Netherlands. What effect did this have when he became ruler?
He was really uncultered in Spain and people didn't like him much. They uprose in Castile and he put it down successfully. So he started to use advisers.
Charles V had tons of income from all his territories but he always came up short. He eliminated his middle class that consisted of _________ during the _______. So he had to borrow from the _______ and _______.
- Muslims and Jews
When did Martin Luther post his 95 Theses?
- 1517 in Wittenberg, Saxony.
- However, nobody cared. It wasn't until 1521 when stuff exploded.
Luther called the Diet of Worms which lead to the __________ war which really didn't do anything. It was fought between _________ divided between Catholicism and Protestantism.
- German princes
What did the Peace of Augsburg do?
It said that the religion of a prince was also the religion of his people. (it was kinda stupid). It didn't include Calvinism.
Why did Charles V abdicate in 1558?
He was tired and wanted a break.
When did the Musims demolish the Byzantine empire.
1453 when they took Constantinople.
Charles felt threatened threatened (as HRE) by the Turks in Constantinople. So what did he do?
He attacked the Turks in the Mediterranean who were pirating the seas.
France felt surrounded by Hapsburgs in Austria, HRE, and Spain so they started the Dynastic Wars with Spain. This lead to a feeling of nationalism . It also lead to the development of what (armies)?
- Standing armies supported by taxation
- Lots of unskilled soldiers, not skilled nights
- Permanent embassies in other countries.
Okay, there's some stuff about Milan v. Francis I. I'm lazy, so go look it up in your notes. The war ended up with the treaty of Cateau-Cambresis which divided up territories.
BOOK REVIEW \m/
Who did Henry VII (1st Tudor king of England) beat in the War of the Roses?
Richard of York (Richard III)
Name Henry VII's innovations to England.
- He wasn't nice, but he didn't spend more than he earned.
- He forced the nobility to give him gifts.
- He fined people for crimes based on their wealth.
- He set up the Court of Star Chamber to try nobles and Prelates (high churchmen) which made him liked by the peasants.
- He spent money on the industry (England built its own ships, made contracts with other countries to produce stuff)
- Banks had regulated interest rates
- Workers made a reaalllly good "real wage rate"
- As a result, England began to rule trade in the North Sea
What did John Cabbot do?
He was told to look for a passage to Indies going north. He found Newfoundland it. That was all...........
Tell the story of Henry VIII up until he married his first wife.
His brother Arthur was married to Catherine of Aragon, but he died. Catherine and Henry VIII married to keep a good political relationship with Spain.
Who was Henry VIII's advisor?
Thomas Wolsey. He tried to get the Pope to annul the marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine, but he couldn't. So, he was about to be arrested but he died.
Who was the surviving child of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon?
Okay, so here's a brief synopsis (no questions) Anne Boleyn wouldn't have an affair with Henry VIII so Henry got an annulment saying that he married the wife of his brother (against the bible). But, because Catherine and Arthur never had sex, this waas invalid. Henry thought their marriage was cursed by God, so when Wolsey couldn't fix things, he declared the Act of Succession which made England Protestant. He made it a crime to question the marriage of Henry and Anne. He married Anne.
Wow, you got it right!
How is St. Thomas More significant?
He didn't want to swear an oath saying that Mary wasn't the queen so he was executed.
What did the Statute of Supremacy do?
It made the king sovereign over the church (Anglican church). Anne got executed for not having a boy.
Who gave birth to Henry VIII's only male heir?
Edward VI was birthed by Jane Seymour.
Who was Henry VIII's hated right hand man? Why was he hated?
- Thomas Cromwell
- He took land and income from the monasteries that he closed and gave it to the crown.
Why did Martin Luther join a monastery?
He was scared during a storm and he prayed to St. Anne and asked her to save him. He became an Augustinian friar.
When did Martin Luther come to hate indulgences.
He traveled to Rome (for being a good monk) and he was like, "OMG. THIS SUX" so he posted his Theses.
What was the point of the Diet at Augsburg?
HRE Maximilian called this to get the German princes to finance a crusade against the Turks. They refused and this showed that they were considering Protestantism.
What did Luther describe in "The Babylonian Captivity of the Church"?
He implied that the leaders of the church were captured by the phony papacy. He also talked about the eucharist and said that transubstantiation was untrue. Consubstantiation is where it's at. He also advocated communion under two species (bread AND wine).
What did Luther say in "Treatise on Christian Liberty" (2nd book)?
He said that faith alone assures salvation but faithful people do good stuff anyway.
What happened when Charles V promised Luther safe conduct to the Diet of Worms?
He got there safely, but on the way back his friend Frederick of Saxony kidnapped him and locked him up in a castle where he wrote pamphlets and decided that the bible was an absolute truth, people should listen to the sermon more, and that canon law/church courts were stupid.
Luther encouraged negotiations between peasants and princes. They revolted anyway, so he wrote what pamphlet? What was its main idea?
- Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants
- Use force to quell the revolts.
Where was Zwingli a member of the clergy?
What did he speak against?
How did he die?
- Indulgences, monasteries, purgatory
- The princes of Swiss cantons were warring and he was killed in a battle.
Who was the most influential reformer who saved the reformation?
French kings didn't want John Calvin, so he left to Switzerland. He wrote what famous book? What did it say?
- Institutes of the Christian Religion
- It said that the bible is the final authority (in everything), only a select few are saved (predestination), religious services should be plain, mass is a sacrilege, there are only two important sacraments (baptism and eucharist), you can only be saved in the Calvinistic church, the church should regulate morals and the state should enforce them
How did Calvin organize his church?
There was a Presbytery of faithful people who ran the church. Elders made decisions and were elected by members. He was also very strict about people skipping church. If you lived in Geneva and you didn't go to his church, you got killed.
Calvin was all about education so he established a _______. He had church members visit others in their _____.
Who was the pope during the Counter Reformation?
How did Paul III deal with corrupt clergy?
He fired the corrupt bishops and put reforming bishops (who did what he wanted) in power. He called the Council of Trent (20 yrs) which solidified that the church had the same beliefs as before (doctrinal affirmation) but they changed their practices (e.g. sale of indulgences)