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Opioid analgesic, Opioid agonist
Action: binds to opiate receptors in the CNS altering the response to and perception of pain, used for pain relief and supplementing anasthesia
Severe side effects: Apnea, laryngospasm
*Do not use within 14 days of an MAOI
Nursing Implications: monitor respiratory rate and BP, respiratory depression lasts longer than analgesic effects, watch for fall risks in geriatric patients, may cause increased serum amylase and lipase
Overdose: Atropine may be used to treat bradycardia, prolonged mechanical ventilation may be required, if necessary, naloxone (Narcan) is the antagonist to opioids
morphine (Roxanol, Morphine Sulfate)
Opioid analgesic, opioid agonist
Action: binds to the opioid CNS receptors, alters the perception of and response to painful stimuli while producing generalized CNS depression.
Common side effects: confusion, sedation, constipation, hypotension
*use extreme caution in patients taking MAOI's within 14 days of receiving morphine, dose may need to be decreased by 25%
Nursing Implications: Assess pain prior to and at peak of administration, High Alert: Assess level of consciousness, blood pressure, pulse, and respirations before and periodically during administration. If respiratory rate is <10/min, assess level of sedation. Physical stimulation may be sufficient to prevent significant hypoventilation. Assess peds and geriatric patients more frequently due to sensitivity, prolonged use may lead to addiction and decreased sensitivity, assess for constipation and encourage fluid intake and possible use of lxatives if therapy lasts 2-3+ days, may increase plasma amylase and lipase levels
Overdose: use Narcan