Philosophy chapter 1

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sow8718
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103910
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Philosophy chapter 1
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2011-09-25 02:56:20
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philosophy
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Cards for intro to philosophy
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  1. Thales of Miletus
    580 bce. His argument was that if there is change, there must be some "thing" that changes. Must be a oneness behind the apparant plurality of the world.
  2. Numerologist
    One interested in the mathematical significance of numbers.
  3. Anaximander
    610-546 bce. Arg - stuff behing elements couldnt be the elements themselves. The stuff must be a "boundless" non-substance.
  4. Monism
    Matter is made of one kind of 'stuff'.
  5. Naturalism
    The argument that natural phenomena should be explained in light of other natural phenomena.
  6. Socrates
    469 - 399 bce
  7. reductionism
    A thing can be reduced to a more basic thing upon further observation
  8. Anaxemenes
    Arg - Everything is made of the same stuff that manifests itself differently in different quantities.
  9. Pythagorus
    572 - 500 bce. Arg - all things are numbers and reality must be expressed mathematically, if the expression is to be correct. Discovered the correlation between music and numbers.
  10. Xenophanes
    Born about 570 bce. Criticised the writings from which the greeks got their gods. Said that gods aren't just "bigger" men.
  11. Heraclitus
    Arg - you cannot step in to same river twice = either the river has changed, or you have.
  12. Parmenides
    Heraclitus's successor 515-440 bce. Arg - there is no nothing, there is only 'being' (being refence to universe maybe) which is indestructible, eternal, indivisible, spherical, and has no holes. Also believed motion to be impossible, because one would have to move from where being is to where it isn't.
  13. Zeno
    Defender of Parmanides. Arg - "proved" that motion is impossible using reductio ad absurdium (reduction to absuridity).Said to move, one must cross and infinite series of points.
  14. (reductio ad absurdium)
    Form of argument that begins by accepting an argument and demonstrating that they lead logically to an absurdity.

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