G&D exam 1

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G&D exam 1
2011-09-23 23:03:53
NU 230

exam 1
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  1. Critical period
    time when certain things occur for normal development
  2. Sensitive period
    when a particular development occurs most easily
  3. Biosocial
    growth, nutrition, physical performance (and motor skills), sexual changes, aging
  4. Cognitive
    intellecutal capabilites, problem solving skills, cultural influences on academic success
  5. Psychosocial
    interactions, temperament, social skills, engageent with the society at various levels
  6. Cohort
    group defined by the shared age of its members
  7. Plasticity
    human traits can be molded, yet people maintain a certain durability of idenity (as plastic can)
  8. Continuous change
    gradual development in which achievements at 1 level build on those previous levels and is a quantitative change
  9. Discontinuous change
    development that occurs in distinct steps or stages and is a qualitative changes
  10. Freud
    • Psychosexual development theory
    • Psychoanalytic theory suggests that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior
  11. Psychosexual development theory
    • Oral (birth to 12-18 months)
    • Anal (12-18 months to 3 years)
    • Phallic (3 to 5-6 years)
    • Latency (5-6 years to adolescence)
    • genital (adolescence to adulthood)
  12. Erikson
    • Psychosocial theory
    • Series of developmental stages that build on each other
    • continuous change
    • believed that development continued throughout lifespan
  13. Psychosocial Theory
    • Trust vs Distrust (0-1 year)
    • Autonomy vs shame and doubt (1-2 years)
    • Initiative vs guilt (3-5 years)
    • Industry vs inferiority (6-11 years)
    • Identity vs role confusion (12-14 years)
    • Intimacy vs isolation (20s and 30s)
    • Generativity vs stagnation (40s and 50s)
    • Integrity vs despair (60 years+)
  14. Piaget
    Cognitive Developmental theory
  15. Cognitive developmental theory
    • focuses on processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world
    • how people think changes with time and experience, and this thinking influences actions and behavior
  16. Stages of Cognitive development
    • Sensorimotor (birth to 18 months or 2 years)
    • Preoperational (2-7 years)
    • Concrete operations (7-11 years)
    • Formation operations (beginning at 12 years and beyond)
  17. Assimilation
    new experience incorporated into current way of thinking
  18. Accommodation
    existing ways of thinking change as a result of new stimuli
  19. Bandura
    Social Learning theory
  20. Social Learning theory
    • Human beings learn from others, by observation, even without any reinforcement
    • modeling
  21. Self efficacy
    degree to which individuals are effective at learning new skills and changing their behavior or social context
  22. Skinner
    Operant conditioning
  23. Von Bertalanffy
    Systems theory
  24. Systems theory
    • system is not the total sum of its parts but is characterized by wholeness and unity
    • systems can be open or closed
    • eg. Family is a system where all family members interact interdependently with 1 another
  25. Brofenbrenner
    • Bioecological approach
    • suggests that different environmental levels simultaneously influence individuals
    • Microsystem > Mesosystem > Exosystem > Macrosystem
  26. Vygotsky
    Sociocultural theory
  27. Sociocultural theory
    social interactions between members of a culture influences development
  28. Cognitive Neuroscience approach
    seeks to identify actuallocations in the brain related to different cognitive activity
  29. Independent variable
    variable that an experiementor can change and is introduced to see what effect it has on the DV
  30. Dependent variable
    variable that depends on independent variable in which it cannot be controlled by the experimentor
  31. Cross-sectional research
    Groups of people of 1 age are compared with people of another age
  32. Longitudinal research
    collecting data repeatedly on the same individuals as they age
  33. Cross-sequential research
    study several groups of people of different agges (cross-sectional) and follow them over the years (longitudinal)
  34. Quantitative research
    provides data that can be expressed with numbers such as ranks or scales
  35. Qualitative research
    descriptions of particular conditions and participants' expressed ideas are often part of qualitative studies
  36. Allele
    variation that makes a gene different in some way from other genes for the same characteristics (think of letters)
  37. Genome
    Full set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual member of a certain specie
  38. Monozygotic twins
    originate from 1 zygote that splits very early in development and has the same genotype
  39. Dizygotic twins
    result from fertilization of 2 separate ova by 2 separate sperm
  40. Assisted reproductive technology
    general term for techniques that help infertile couples conceive and sustain a pregnancy
  41. In vitro fertilization
    think "test tube baby"
  42. Epigenetics
    refers to environmental factors that affect genes and genetic expression
  43. Down Syndrome
    3 copies of chromosome 21 (trisomy-21)
  44. Recessive disorders
    Fragile X syndrome and Sickle cell trait
  45. Phenylketonuria (PKU)
    recessive condition that results in inability to metabolize phenylalanine and if tested early, a special diet usually results in normal development
  46. Prenatal growth
    • Germinal period (1st 2 weeks after conception)
    • Embryonic period (3rd-8th weeks)
    • Fetal period (9th-birth)
  47. Germinal Period
    rapid cell division and beginning of cell differentiation
  48. Embryonic period
    basic forms of all body structures develop
  49. Fetal period
    fetus grows in size and matures in funcitoning, and genitals form
  50. Age of viability
    age at which preterm newborn may survive outside the womb with medical care
  51. Apgar scale
    • quick assessment of newbron's heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, and reflexes
    • complete 2x (1 minute and 5 minutes after birth)
    • score of 0, 1, or 2 in each catagory
    • desired score is 7 (total) or above
  52. Cerebral palsy
    damage to brain's motor centers which impairs speech and/or muslces
  53. Teratogens
    substances and conditions that can impair prenatal development and result in birth defects or even death
  54. Threshold effect
    when a teratogen is harmless in small doses but becomes harmful at a certain level (threshold)
  55. Low brithweight
    less 2,500 g (5.5 lbs) at birth
  56. Very low birthweight
    under 1,500 g (3 lbs & 5 oz) at birth
  57. Extremely low birthweight
    under 1,000 g (2 lbs & 3 oz) at birth
  58. Preterm
    birth taht occurs at 35 or fewer weeks after conception
  59. Small for gestational age
    birth weight is significantly lower than expected, given the time since conception and suggests impairment throughout prenatal development and serious problems
  60. Brezelton Neonatal behavioral assessment
    test that measures responsiveness and records 46 behaviors, including 20 reflexes
  61. Couvade
    symptoms of pregnancy and birth experienced by fathers