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What are the two distinct regions of the Skin?
- Epidermis (Superficial/ outer portion) Epithelial
- Dermis (Deep/ inner portion) Connective
Where is the Hypodermis located?
Below the Dermis
Hypodermis is also known as the subcutaneous layer
What are the functions of the Hypodermis?
- Insulation and shock absorber/ protects
- Fat storage (Hypodermis is what increases in size when you gain weight)
- Protective passage way for the blood vessels and nerves
What is the epidermis composed of?
Keratinized stratisfied squamous epithelial consisting of 4 principal types of cells arranged in 4-5 layers
What are the four principal types of cells that create the epidermis?
- Epidermal Dendritic
- Merkel cells
What are Keratinocytes?
- Majority of the epidermis cells
- Found in all layers
- Produce Keratin (fiberous protective protein)
- Tightly joined by desmosones
What are Melanocytes?
- Spider shaped cell found only in the eep layer.
- Produce Melanin (Skin Color)
- Melanin absorbs or blocks the sun's UV rays
- Melanin is inside the keratinocytes
- Melanin is superficial top layer
What is the Hypodermis made of?
- Adipose Connective Tissue
- Areolar Connective tissue
NOT PART OF THE SKIN, found below the skin.
What are Epidermal Dendritic Cells?
- Macrophage - phagocytic immune cells
- Found in the second layer, AKA Spinosum layer
What is a Merkel cell?
- Sensory nerve ending
- Providing sense of touch
Finger tips have a lot of Merkel cells
What are the 5 layers of the Epidermis?
- Stratum Basal
- Stratum Spinosum
- Stratum Granulosum
- Stratum Lucidum
- Stratum Coneum
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Where is the Straum Basal layer in the Epidermis?
Deepest layer of epidermis, attached to the dermis.
How many rows does the Stratum Basal layer have?
1 row which are stem cells undergoing Mitosis
What cells are in the Stratum Basal layer?
- Merkel cells
How many rows does the Stratum Spinosum have?
8-10 rows of cells with are attached with desmosomes
What is the function of the Stratum Spinosum?
Provides strength and flexibility to the skin
What cells are in the Stratum Spinosum layer?
- Keratinocytes with Melanin granules
- Epidermal dendritic cells
How many rows does the Stratum Granulosum have?
3-5 rows of keratinocytes
What is happening to the keratinocytes in the Stratum Granulosum?
Keratinization process = cells undergoing apoptosis (programmed cell death)
How many rows are in the Stratum Lucidum?
A few rows of clear, flat, dead cells.
ONLY IN THICK SKIN (5 layers)