OT Ch 5 structure/functions

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  1. bursa
    a small fluid filled sac in the shoulder, elbow, and knee joints that provides a cushioning effect during movement
  2. carpals
    the small bones of the wrist
  3. metacarpals
    the small, narrow bones of the hand
  4. cartilaginous joint
    a joint where the material between bones consists of cartilage that allows some movement between bones
  5. cranium
    part of the skull, the bones that surround the brain
  6. abduction
    movement away from the body midline
  7. adduction
    movement toward the body midline
  8. circumduction
    turning the distal end of a bone in a circle
  9. fascia
    a tough, fibrous connective tissue
  10. femur
    the bone of the upper leg or thigh
  11. fibrous joint
    a joint where the material between bones consists of fibrous connective tissue that allows very little or no movement between them
  12. fibula
    the smaller of the two ones of the lower leg
  13. dorsiflexion
    bending the foot or toes upward
  14. flexion
    decreasing the angle between bones (bending a bone)
  15. plantar flexion
    bending of the sole of the foot by curling the toes downward toward the ground
  16. ilium
    the upper, wing-shaped bone of the pelvic girdle
  17. ischium
    the inferior bone of the pelvic girdle
  18. meniscus
    a crescent shaped cartilage that helps to stabalize joint movements
  19. aponeurosis
    a flattened tendon. It functions as a fascia that joins muscles together or joins muscle to bone
  20. endoosteum
    a thin layer of connective tissue that lines the marrow cavity
  21. osteoblast
    a bone cell that is mobile and secretes bone matrix
  22. osteoclast
    a bone cell that dissolves bone matrix
  23. osteocyte
    a bone cell that is stationary, locked within bone matrix
  24. periosteum
    a thin layer of fibrous connective tissue that forms the outermost layer of a bone
  25. parietal bones
    part of the skull, two bones at the top of the head
  26. patella
    the bone that forms the kneecap
  27. phalanges of the fingers
    the small, narrow bones of the fingers. Singular form is phalanx
  28. phanges of the toes
    the small, narrow bones of the toes
  29. Diaphysis
    the long, narrow shaft portion of long bones
  30. epiphysis
    the end of a long bone
  31. pubis
    the anterior part of the pelvic girdle
  32. symphysis pubis
    a cartilaginous joint that is the point of fusion for two pubis bones
  33. radius
    the bone of the forearm (lower arm) that s in line with the thumb
  34. sacrum
    four vertebrae that fuse n early childhood into a single bone that forms the dorsal wall of the pelvis
  35. appendicular skeleton
    a division of the skeleton that includes the bones of the appendages and pectoral and pelvic girdles
  36. axial skeleton
    a division of the skeleton that includes the bones that are located along or near the central vertical axis of the body. It includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column, and the bones of the thoracic cage
  37. Skeletal muscle
    the muscle tissue that forms the muscles attached to bones
  38. sternum
    the breastplate
  39. synovial joint
    a joint that contains synovial fluid within a sac of connective tissue, alowing for the most movement between bones in comparison to fibrous joints and cartilaginous joints
  40. synovial fluid
    the fluid produced by the synovial membrane, which provides lubrication and a shock-absorbing cushion in synovial joints
  41. metatarsus
    • the bones of the foot
    • also called matatarsal bones
  42. tarsus
    the bones of the ankle
  43. tendon
    a band of fibrous tissue tat connects muscle to bone
  44. extension
    increasing the angle between bones (straigtening a joint, stretching out a tendon)
  45. eversion
    turning a body part outward
  46. inversion
    turning a body part inward
  47. cervical vertebae
    the first seven bones of the vertebral column, cumbered C1 to C7 from superior to inferior
  48. intervertebral disc
    fibrocartilaginous disc located between vertebrae
  49. lumbar vertebrae
    five vertebrae of the lower spine, numbered L1 to L5
  50. thoraic vertebrae
    12 vertebrae of the thorax, numbered T1 to T12. Each one articulates with a pair or ribs
  51. vertebral column
    the spinal column. 33-34 vertebrae in a linear formation
  52. arthralgia
    pain in a joint
  53. ataxia
    an inability to coordinate muscles while executing a voluntary movement
  54. atrophy
    lacking development or wasting
  55. bradykinesia
    abnormally slow movement
  56. dyskinesia
    difficulty in movement
  57. dystrophy
    deformities that arise during development
  58. hypertrophy
    excessive deelopment
  59. myalgia
    muscle tenderness or pain
  60. rigor
    a state of rigidity of muscle during whihc the muscle is unable to contract
  61. spasm
    an abnormal, sudden involuntary muscle cntraction (tonic spasm), or series of alternating muscle contractions and relaxations (clonic spasm). One who is affected by spasm is spastic
  62. tenodyia
    pain in a tendon
  63. tremor
    involuntary shaking of the limbs
  64. achondroplasia
    abnormal, slow growth of long bones, results in unusually short, stocky limbs
  65. ankylosis
    abnormal condition of joint stiffness
  66. arthritis
    inflammation and degeneration of a joint. The two primary types, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, are described later in this section
  67. arthrochondritis
    inflammation of cartilages within joints
  68. bunion
    abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe
  69. bursitis
    imflammation of the bursa
  70. bursolith
    a calcium deposit (or stone) within the bursa
  71. carpal tunel syndrome
    • repetitive stress injury in which the median nerve of the wrist generates pain impulses due to imflammation of the synovial sheath
    • CTS
  72. carpoptosis
    • drooping of the wrist
    • called Wrist Drop
  73. chondromalacia
    deterioration or softening of the cartilage
  74. cramps
    prolonged, involunttary muscular contractions
  75. cranioschisis
    a fissue of the skull present at at birth
  76. diskitis
    inflammation of an intervertebral disk
  77. Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy
    • a congenital condition that results in progressive muscular weakness and deterioration
    • DMD
  78. epicondylitis
    inflammation of the cartilages of the elbow
  79. fracture
    a berak in a bone
  80. gout
    • abnormal deposition of uric acid crystals in the joints. Causes localized paing.
    • Called Gouty Arthritis
  81. epidondylitis
    inflammation of the cartilages of the elbow
  82. Herniated dist
    a rupture of an intevertebral disk. Results in the protrusion of tissue against spinal nerves or the spinal cord, which generates pain
  83. Kyphosis
    a deformity of the spine characterized by the presence of a hump. Called hunchback
  84. lateral epcondylitis
    inflammation of the lateral tendon of the elbow. Called tennis elbow
  85. lordosis
    a deformity of the spine characterized by an anterior curve of the lumbar area
  86. Marfan's syndrome
    inherited condition that results in excessive cartilage formation at the growth plates, forming long arms and legs
  87. maxillitis
    inflammmation of the maxilla
  88. meniscitis
    inflammation of the meniscus
  89. myasthenia gravis
    weakness in the muscle
  90. myeloma
    a tumor composed of bone marrow cells
  91. myoclonus
    a spasm or twitching of a muscle or muscle group
  92. myocele
    protrusion of a muscle through its fascia
  93. myositis
    inflammation of muscle tissue
  94. osteitis
    inflammation of a bone
  95. osteitis deformans
    • viral infection of bone that causes deformities of a skeleton and results and the acceleration of bone loss.
    • Paget's Disease
  96. osteoarthritis
    a form of arthritis characterized by an age related deterioration of joints that is accompanied by erosion of cartilage and painful inflammation. OA
  97. osteochondritis
    inflammation of bone and associated cartilage
  98. osteofibroma
    a benign tumor of bone, in which the tumor contains fibrous connective tissue that surrounds bone
  99. osteogenesis imperfecta
    an inherited condition that results in impaired growth and fragile bones. Leads to progressive skeletal deformation and frequent fractures
  100. osteomalacia
    an inherited condition that results in impaired growth and fragile bones. Leads to grogressive skeletal deformation and frequent fractures
  101. osteomyelitis
    a painful bone infection caused by bacteria. Characterized by inflammation of the red bone marrow
  102. osteonecrosis
    death of bone tissue
  103. osteopetrosis
    excessive formation of sense bone, which crowds out marrow cavities and leads to cutting off the blood supply to bone. Marble Bone
  104. osteoporosis
    abnormal loss of bone density
  105. osteosarcoma
    primary cancer of bone
  106. Paget's Disease
    viral infection of bone that deforms the skeleton due to the acceleration of bone oss. osteitis deformans
  107. paraplegia
    aralysis (loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movement) of both legs and the lower part of the body
  108. paresis
    partial motor paralysis
  109. polymyositis
    inflammation of many muscles simultaneously
  110. quadriplegia
    paralysis of all four appendages
  111. rheumatoid arthritis
    a form of arthritis characterized by progressive, gradal joint deterioration that is caused by an autoimmune response. RA
  112. scoliosis
    abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
  113. spinal cord injury
    trauma to the spinal cord, which often results in paralysis. SCI
  114. spondylarthritis
    inflammation fo the intervertebral joints
  115. sprain
    an injury that results from stretching a ligament beyond its normal range, tearing its collagen fibers
  116. synoviosarcoma
    carncer of a synovial membrane in a joint
  117. strain
    an injury that results from stretcing a muscle beyond its normal range, tearing muscle tissue
  118. tendinitis
    inflammation of a tendon, such as in rotator cuff tendinitis
  119. tenosynovitis
    inflammation of a tendon and the synovial membrane that surrounds it
  120. colles
    a break in the distal part of the radius
  121. comminuted
    a break that results in fragmentation of the bone
  122. compression
    a crushed break, often due to weight or pressure applied to a bone during a fall
  123. displaced
    a break that caused an abnormal alignment of bone pieces
  124. epiphyseal
    a break at the location of the growth plate, which can affect growth of the bone
  125. greenstick
    a slight break in a bone that appears as a slight fissure in a xray
  126. nondisplaced
    a break in which the broken bones retain their alignment
  127. Pott's
    a break at the ankle that affects both bones of the leg
  128. spiral
    a spiral shaped break, often caused by twisting stressed along a long bone
  129. arthrocentesis
    surgical puncture of a joint to aspirate
  130. arthroclasia
    breaking of an abnormally stiff joint during surgery to increase range of motion. ROM
  131. arthrodesis
    surgical fixation (stabilization of a joint)
  132. arthrogram
    xray film of a joint after injection of air, contrast media, or both
  133. arthrologist
    a physician who specializes in treatment of joint disease
  134. arthroplasty
    surgical repair of a joint, which may involve total joint replacement
  135. arthroscopy
    endoscopic visual examnation of a joint cavity using a fiber-optic instrument called the arthroscope
  136. arthrotomy
    surgical inscision into a joint
  137. bursectomy
    surgical excision of a bursa
  138. bursotomy
    surgical inscision into a bursa
  139. chiropractic
    a field of therapy that mainly involves manipulation of the vertebral column
  140. chiropractor
    a specialist in chiropractic
  141. chondrectomy
    surgical excision of a joint cartilage
  142. chondroplasty
    surgical repair of a joint cartilage
  143. costectomy
    surgical excision of a rib
  144. cranioplasty
    surgical repair of a defect in the cranium
  145. diskectomy
    surgical excision of an intervertebral disk
  146. electromyography
    a diagnostic procedure that records the strength of muscle contraction. EMG
  147. fasciotomy
    surgical incision into fascia
  148. laminectomy
    surgical excision of part of a vertebra known as the lamina, often as part of a treatment for a herniated disk
  149. meniscectomy
    surgical removal of a meniscus
  150. myoplasty
    surgical repair of muscle tissue
  151. myorrhaphy
    closing a sucles with sutures
  152. orthopedics
    the medical field that manages musculoskeletal diseases. Ortho
  153. orthotics
    construction and fitting of orthopedic appliances, such as lifts, prosthetic devices, ect. to assist in patient movement
  154. orthotist
    a technician who specialezes in orthotics
  155. ostectomy
    surgical excision of bone
  156. osteoclasis
    surgical breaking of a bone to correct a defect
  157. osteologist
    a technician who specializes in the treatment of bone disease
  158. osteology
    the field of medicine concerned with the study and treatment of bone disease
  159. osteopath
    a physician trained in osteopathy. DO. osteopathic surgeon
  160. osteopathy
    a medical field that emphasizes the relationship between the musculoskeletal system and overall health, with an emphasis on preventative medicine
  161. osteoplasty
    surgical repair of bone
  162. podiatrist
    a physician trained in podiatry
  163. podiatry
    medical field that specializes in treating the foot
  164. prosthesis
    an artificial substitute for a missing body part
  165. rachiotomy
    surgical incision into the vertebral column
  166. spinal fusion
    surgical connection of adjective vertebrae, usually as a treatment for a herniated disk. spondylosyndesis
  167. spondylosyndesis
    surgically connecting adjacent vertebrae. spinal fusion
  168. synovectomy
    surgical excision of a joints synovial membrane
  169. tenomyoplasty
    surgical repair of a muscle and its tendon
  170. tenorrhaphy
    closing a tendon with sutures
  171. tenotomy
    incision into a tendon
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OT Ch 5 structure/functions
OT Ch 5 structure/functions
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