Vasculature of Head and Neck
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Name the branches of the arch of aorta from R to L
- Branchiocephalic. Divides into R CC and R SC
- Left common carotid
- Left Subclavian
What are the parts of the subclavian artery defined by?
Relationship to the anterior scalene muscle
What arteries are located in the medial part of the subclavian arteries? What are their branches?
- Vertebral Artery
- Thyrocervical Artery: Branches into transverse cervical, suprascupular and inferior thyroid artery
- Internal Thoracic Artery: Gives off anterior intercostal branches to ribs 1-6
How does the vertebral artery enter the head?
How does the internal thoracic artery travel?
Parallel to the sternum
What artery arises from the posterior part of the subclavian artery?
Costocervical trunk: Deep cervical artery
What does the deep cervical artery supply?
Deep neck muscles and fascia
Where does the common carotid artery arise on the R and L side?
- R side: Branch of brachiocephalic trunk
- L Side: Arch of aorta
Where does the common carotid split?
Superior border of the thyroid cartilage
Name the branches of the external carotid artery?
- Superior Thyroid
- Ascending Pharyngeal
- Posterior Auricalar
- Superficial Temporal
Describe the path of the lingual artery:
- Branches near tip of greater horn of lyoid
- Disappears under hyoglossus muscle
Describe path of facial nerve:
- Deep to posterior belly of digastic and stylohyoid muscles
- Curves over mandible at anterior edge of masseter
What does the ascending pharyngeal artery supply?
Neck and scalp
What does the posterior auricular artery supply?
- Parotid gland
- Adjacent muscles
- Adjacent scalp
Where does the maxillary artery go?
How does the internal carotid enter the head and what is it joined by upon entering
- Enters through: Carotid canal
- Joined by: Internal carotid plexus
What is the circle of willis made of anteriorly and posteriorly?
- Anteriorly: Internal carotid
- Posteriorly: Vertebral arteries
What is the ophthalmic artery derived from?
Internal carotid after passing through the cavernous sinus
What are the 2 layers of the dural mater?
- Outer: Periosteal Layer
- Inner: Meningeal Layer
Where is the CSF in the brain reabsorbed?
- Superior Sagittal Sinus
- Through arachnoid granulations
What vein does the straight sinus receive?
Great cerebral sinus
What sinuses join at the confluens of sinuses?
- Superior Sagittal
What sinus is found on the lesser of the sphenoid?
What sinuses are found on the petrous process?
- Superiour petrosal sinus
- Inferior petrosal sinus
What does the basilar sinus connect?
- Inferior petrosal and cavernous sinus
- Also communicates with vertebral venous plexus
Where does the vertebral venous plexus come from?
What is the internal jugular vein made from and how does it exit the head?
- Sigmoidal sinus
- Exits through the jugular foramen
Where is the brachiocephalic vein made?
When the subclavian vein joins the internal jugular vein
Where is the external jugular vein located in the neck?
Deep to platysma but superficial to the sternocleidomastoid
What makes up the external jugular vein?
- Retromandibular Vein
- Posterior Auricular Vein
When the brachiocephalic veins converge, what do they form?
Superior vena cava
What artery is injured often during a cranial epidural hemorrhage?
Middle meningeal artery
What can cause a subarachnoid hemmorrhage?
If the circle of willis has an aneurysm
What can be caused by an aneurysm of internal carotid artery within the cavernous sinus?
- Altered eye movements
- Disturbances in V1 and V2
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