Physiology Lecture Ch. 13

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Physiology Lecture Ch. 13
2011-09-29 15:01:31
Physiology heart

Heart and circulation
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  1. Functions of the Circulatory System
    • Transportation
    • Regulation
    • Protection
  2. Functions of the Circulatory System
    • Respiratory: Transport 02 and CO2
    • Nutritive: Carry absorbed digestion products to liver and to tissues
    • Excretory: Carry metabolic wastes to kidneys to be excreted
  3. Functions of the Circulatory System
    • Hormonal: Carry hormones to target tissues to produce their effects
    • Temperature: Divert blood to cool or warm the body
  4. Functions of the Circulatory System
    • Blood clotting
    • Immune
  5. Components of the Circulatory System
    • Cardiovascular System (CV)
    • Lymphatic System
  6. Components of the Circulatory System
    Cardiovascular System (CV)
    • Heart: Pumping action creates pressure head needed to push blood through vessels
    • Blood vessels: Arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins. Permits blood flow from heart to cells and back to the heart
  7. Components of the Circulatory System
    Lymphatic System
    • Lymphatic vessels transport interstitial fluid
    • Lymph nodes cleanse lymph prior to return in venous blood
  8. Composition of Blood (formed elements/plasma)
    • Plasma
    • Plasma proteins
    • Serum
  9. Composition of Blood
    • Straw colored liquid
    • Consists of H20 and dissolved solutes, ions, metabolites, hormones and antibodies
    • * Na+ is the major solute of the plasma
  10. Composition of Blood
    Plasma Proteins
    • Constitute 7-9% of plasma
    • Albumin: Accounts for 60-80% of plasma proteins and provides the colloid osmotic pressure needed to draw H2O from interstitial fluid to capillaries; helps to maintain blood pressure
  11. Composition of Blood
    • Fluid from clotted blood
    • Does not contain fibrinogen
  12. Formed Elements
    • Erythrocytes (red blood cells)-formed in spongy part in compact bone
    • Leukocytes (white blood cells)
    • Platelets (thrombocyctes)
  13. Formed Elements
    • Flattened biconcave discs
    • Provide increased surface area through which gas can diffuse
    • Lack nuclei and mitchondria
    • Half life~120 days
    • Each RBC contains 280 million hemoglobin with 4 heme chains (contain iron)
    • Removed from circulation by phagocytic cells in liver, spleen, and bone marrow
  14. Formed elements
    • Contain nuclei and mitchondria
    • Move in amoeboid fashion
    • Can squeeze through capillary walls (help with infection & healing)
    • Almost invisible, so named after their staining properties
  15. Leukocytes
    Granular leukocytes
    • Help detoxify foreign substances
    • Release heparin
  16. Leukocytes
    Agranular Leukocyctes
    • Phagocytic
    • Produce antibodies
  17. Formed elements
    Platelets (thrombocytes)
    • Smallest of formed elements
    • Lack nuclei
    • Important in blood clotting. Constitute most of the mass of the clot. Release serotonin to vasoconstrict and reduce blood flow to area.
    • Secrete growth factors: Maintain the integrity of blood vessel wall
    • Survive 5-9 days
  18. Formation of Blood Cells
    • Hematopoiesis (formation of blood cells)
    • Erythropoiesis (formation of erythrocytes)
    • Leukopoiesis (formation of leukocytes)
  19. Formation of Blood Cells
    Hematopoiesis (formation of blood cells)
    Occurs in myeloid tissue (bone marrow of long bones) and lymphoid tissue.
  20. 2 types of hematopoieses:
    • Erythropoiesis: Formation of RBCs
    • Leukopoiesis: Formation of WBCs
  21. Formation of Blood Cells
    Erythropoiesis (formation of erythrocyctes)
    • Active process. 2.5 million RBCs are produced every second
    • Primary regulator is erythropoietin (hormone secreted by the kidneys)
    • Old RBCs are destroyed in spleen and liver. Iron recycled back to myeloid tissue to be reused in hemoglobin production.
    • Need iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid for synthesis
  22. Formation of Blood Cells
    Leukopoiesis (formation of leukocytes)
    Cytokines stimulate different types and stages of WBC production, help differentiate between agranulocyctes and granulocytes
  23. Blood Typing
    Red Blood Cell (RBC), Antigens and Blood typing
    • Each person's blood type determines which antigens (chemical protein) are present on their RBC surface
    • Antigens are molecules on the surface of all cells in the body that can be recognized by the immune system of another individual
    • As part of the immune response, particular lymphocytes secrete a class of proteins called antibodies that bond in a specific fashion with antigens
  24. Major group of antigens of RBCs is the ABO system
    • A person may have: Type A, Type B, Type AB, Type O
    • Each person inherits 2 genes (one from each parent) that control the production of ABO groups
  25. Blood type A, B, AB, O
    • A: having only A antigens
    • B: having only B antigens
    • AB: having both A and B antigens (universal recipient)
    • O: having neither A nor B antigens (universal donor)
  26. Transfusion Reactions
    If blood types do not match, the recipients antibodies attach to donors RBCs and agglutinate (clumping of cells together)
  27. Transfusion Reactions
    Type O (universal donor)
    • Lack A and B antigens
    • Recipients antibodies cannot agglutinate the donors RBCs
  28. Transfusion Reactions
    Type AB (universal recipient)
    • Lack the anti-A and anti-B antibodies
    • Cannot agglutinate donors RBCsk
  29. Rh Factor (first found in the Rhesus monkey)
    Another group of antigens found on RBCs. Known as D, so is sometimes abbreviated Rho (D)
  30. Rh positve
    Has Rho (D) antigens
  31. Rh negative
    Does not have Rho(D) anitgens
  32. Erythroblastosis fetus
    Rh- mother produces antibodies, which cross placenta. Hemolysis of Rh+ RBCs in the fetus
  33. Blotting Clotting
    • Hemostasis or the cessation of bleeding occurs when a blood vessel is injured
    • Function of platelets in a damaged vessel result in clotting by producing a platelet plug. Strengthened by activation of plasma clotting factors
  34. Blood Clotting
    Platelet plug is strenghtened by:
  35. Blood Clotting
    Clot reaction:
    Contraction of the platelet mass forms a more compact plug
  36. Dissolution of Clots
    • Plasmin is an enzyme that digests the fibrin. Clot dissolution occurs
    • Anticoagulants
  37. Anticoagulants:
    • Heparin
    • Coumarin
  38. Acid-Base Balnce in the Blood
    • Blood pH is maintained within a narrow range by lungs and kidneys
    • Normal pH of blood is 7.35 to 7.45
  39. Acid Base Disorders
    Respiratory acidosis: (lungs)
    • Hypoventilation (low ventilation)
    • Accumulation of CO2 (more acidic)
    • pH of the blood decreases
  40. Acid Base disorders
    Respiratory alkalosis (lungs)
    • Hyperventilation
    • Excessive loss of CO2 (more alkaline)
    • pH of the blood increases
  41. Acid Base Disorders
    Metabolic acidosis (kidneys)
    • Gain of fixed acid or loss of HCO3
    • Plasma HCO3 decreases (more acidic)
    • pH of the blood decreases
  42. Acid Base Disorders
    Metabolic alkalosis (kidneys)
    • Loss of fixed acid or gain of HCO3
    • Plasma HCO3 increases (more alkaline)
    • pH of the blood increases