Parisitology - Malaria

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  1. What is the definitive host?
    Anopheles mosquitos
  2. What stage of the plasmodium is found in anopheles salivary glands (infective to humans)?
  3. Where does asexual reproduction take place?
    In human hepatocytes
  4. What is a hypnozoite?
    • Resting stage in humans before asexual replication
    • Seen in P. vivax and P. ovale
  5. What are the 4 main types of malaria?
    • Plasmodium falciparum
    • Plasmodium malariae
    • Plasmodium vivax
    • Plasmodium ovale
  6. Schizongony
    • Asexual multiplication
    • Produces thousands of merozoites per schizont
    • Repture of hepatocyte releases merozoites
  7. Erythrocytic Schizongony
    • Asexual multiplication in RBCs
    • Likely cause of febrile periodicity
  8. Plasmodium vivax - Where?
    C. America, S. America, East Africa, S. Asia
  9. Plasmodium vivax - What does it look like?
    • Ring trophozoites within enlarged RBCs
    • Reddish granules called Schuffners dots
    • Infected cell remains smooth
  10. Plasmodium ovale - Where?
    AFRICA, S. America, S. Asia
  11. Plasmodium ovale - What does it look like?
    • Ring trophozoites within enlarged RBCs
    • LARGE reddish granules called Schuffners dots
    • Infected cell ragged and irregularly shaped
  12. Plasmodium malariae - Where?
    • S. America, Africa, S. Asia
    • Less frequent
  13. Plasmodium malariae - What does it look like?
    Elongate trophozoites within normal size RBCs
  14. Plasmodium falciparum - Where?
    Tropics and subtropics ONLY
  15. Plasmodium falciparum - What does it look like?
    • Ring trophozoites within normal size RBCs
    • Dark red Maurer's dots
  16. Malaria - Diagnosis?
    • Blood films
    • Plasmodial antigen rapid blood tests
  17. Malaria - Presentation?
    • Headache, myalgias, nausea
    • Malarial paroxysm (chills as fever rises followed by hot stage)
    • Profuse sweating after hot stage
    • Acute splenomegaly
  18. Which form of malaria is associated with most severe complications?
    Plasmodium falciparum
  19. Complications
    • Cerebral malaria (falciparum)
    • Anemia
    • Renal Disease (falciparum and malariae) due to anoxia
  20. Plasmodium knowlesi
    • Found in Malaysia
    • Parasite of macaque monkeys, can infect humans
    • Resembles P. Malariae
  21. Antimalarials
    • Qunine/quinidine
    • Chloroquine
    • Primaquine
    • Mefloquine
    • Tetra/doxycycline
  22. Image Upload
    P. Falciparum
  23. Image Upload
    P. Ovale
  24. Image Upload
    P. Malariae
  25. Image Upload
    P. Vivax
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Parisitology - Malaria
2011-09-24 22:57:21

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