Vocabulary 2011-09-24

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kkleen
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104040
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Vocabulary 2011-09-24
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2011-09-24 18:48:15
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Vocabulary
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Vocabulary 2011-09-24
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  1. omnibus
    • PRONUNCIATION:
    • (OM-ni-bus)

    • MEANING:
    • noun: 1. A volume reprinting several works by one author or works on one theme. 2. A public vehicle designed to carry a large number of people.adjective: Including or dealing with many things at once.

    • ETYMOLOGY:
    • From French, from Latin omnibus (for all). Ultimately from the Indo-European root op- (to work, produce) that is also the ancestor of words such as opera, opulent, optimum, maneuver, manure, operose and inure. Earliest documented use: 1829.

    • USAGE:
    • "Say I'm reading an omnibus edition, where three novels are published as a collection. Does that count as one book or three? As far as I'm concerned it's three."Glen Humphries; Last Word on Speed Reading; Illawarra Mercury (Australia); Jan 13, 2011.
  2. chapbook
    • PRONUNCIATION:
    • (CHAP-book)

    • MEANING:
    • noun: A small book or pamphlet containing stories, poems, or religious tracts.

    • ETYMOLOGY:
    • From chapman book, a small, cheap book sold by a chapman or a colporteur. Earliest documented use: 1824.

    • USAGE:
    • "Gloucester writer and editor David Rich will read from and discuss his new chapbook of poems."Ann Gail McCarthy; Rocky Neck Tradition Kicks Off Busy Weekend; Gloucester Times (Massachusetts); Aug 10, 2011.
  3. roman-fleuve
    • PRONUNCIATION:
    • (roe-MAAN*-fluhv)
    • [* the middle syllable is nasal]

    • MEANING:
    • noun: A long novel, often in several volumes, that tells the story of an individual, family, or society across several generations.

    • ETYMOLOGY:
    • From French roman (novel) + fleuve (river). Earliest documented use: 1936. Plural romans-fleuves.

    • USAGE:
    • "And it'd be a shame to miss out on the delights of the roman-fleuve as summer reading: there's a thrill in buying 12 volumes to read end-to-end."Tim Martin; I'll be Joining the Dance Online; The Daily Telegraph (London, UK); May 17, 2008.
  4. enchiridion
    • enchiridion
    • PRONUNCIATION:
    • (en-ky-RID-ee-uhn, -kih-)

    • MEANING:
    • noun: A handbook or a manual.

    • ETYMOLOGY:
    • From Latin enchiridion, from Greek encheiridion, from en- (in) + cheir (hand) + -idion (diminutive suffix). Ultimately from the Indo-European root ghes- (hand) that also gave us cheiromancy (palmistry), chiral (not superimposable on its mirror image), and surgeon (literally, one who works with hands). Earliest documented use: 1541.

    • NOTES:
    • In the beginning an enchiridion was a book concise enough to be carried in one's hand, as its origin from Greek cheir (hand) suggests. Both 'handbook' and 'manual' are literal equivalents of the word from English and Latin (from Latin manus: hand) respectively.

    • USAGE:
    • "What to read: Toronto Life has been the enchiridion for Toronto's savvy since 1966."Alexander Besant; Anada's Capital of Cool; Times Union (Albany, New York); May 16, 2010.
  5. vade mecum
    • vade mecum
    • PRONUNCIATION:
    • (VAY/VAH-dee MEE/MAY-kuhm)

    • MEANING:
    • noun: A book for ready reference, such as a manual or guidebook.

    • ETYMOLOGY:
    • From Latin vade mecum (go with me), from vadere (to go) + me (me) + cum (with). Earliest documented use: 1629.

    • NOTES:
    • An iPad may serve as the modern vade mecum, but in earlier times there was no Wi-Fi with easy access to reference material. A moneylender may have had to carry a book of interest tables, a doctor a book of treatments, and so on. A vade mecum was often folded like an accordion or a map and suspended from the belt or girdle.

    • USAGE:
    • "The U.S. Senate, over which Dallas presided, ordered twelve thousand copies of Hickey's pro-slavery vade mecum."Jill Lepore; The Commandments; The New Yorker; Jan 17, 2011.
  6. necropolis
    • necropolis
    • PRONUNCIATION:
    • (ne-KROP-uh-lis)

    • MEANING:
    • noun: A burial place, especially a large and elaborate cemetery belonging to an ancient city.

    • ETYMOLOGY:
    • From Greek necro- (dead) + -polis (city). Earliest documented use: 1819.

    • USAGE:
    • "This merchant lived a long life in Egypt and was buried in the Saqqara necropolis."Nevine El-Aref; Ancient Egyptians in Arabia; Al-Ahram Weekly (Cairo, Egypt); Nov 11, 2010.
  7. polymath
    • polymath
    • PRONUNCIATION:
    • (POL-ee-math)

    • MEANING:
    • noun: A person who is learned in many fields.

    • ETYMOLOGY:
    • From Greek polymathes (learned), from poly- (many) and manthanein (to learn). Ultimately from the Indo-European root mendh- (to learn) that is also the root of mathematics, chrestomathy, opsimath, and philomath. Earliest documented use: 1624.

    • USAGE:
    • "If ever there was a gifted polymath, it was Prof. Gift Siromoney. He may have been Professor of Mathematics at MCC (Madras Christian College), but his interests were from A to Z, from archaeology to zoology."S. Muthiah; A Gifted Polymath; The Hindu (Chennai, India); Apr 10, 2011.
  8. kleptocracy
    • PRONUNCIATION:
    • (klep-TOK-ruh-see)

    • MEANING:
    • noun: A government by the corrupt in which rulers use their official positions for personal gain.

    • ETYMOLOGY:
    • From Greek klepto-, from kleptes (thief) + -cracy (rule). Earliest documented use: 1819.

    • USAGE:
    • "Mubarak was the leader of a brutal dictatorship and kleptocracy. He enriched himself and his family and friends at the expense of the people."A Trial Tyrants Will Heed; Winnipeg Free Press (Canada); Aug 4, 2011.
  9. heterodox
    • PRONUNCIATION:
    • (HET-uhr-uh-doks)

    • MEANING:
    • adjective:1. Different from established beliefs or opinions.2. Holding unorthodox opinions.

    • ETYMOLOGY:
    • From Greek hetero- (different) + doxa (opinion), from dokein (to think). Ultimately from the Indo-European root dek- (to take or accept), which is also the root of words such as paradox, orthodox, doctor, disciple, discipline, doctrine, dogma, decent, decorate, dignity, disdain, condign, and deign. Earliest documented use: 1619.

    • USAGE:
    • "Batku's response was to cast himself as a defender of the faith, railing against heterodox sects."Praveen Swami; Piety, Paranoia, and Kashmir's Politics of Hate; The Hindu (Chennai, India); Jul 1, 2008.

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