Psych 181 Midterm 1

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  1. afferent neurons
    transmit information from the organs and tissues to the Central Nervous System
  2. efferent neurons
    transmit info from the CNS to the effector cells
  3. dendrites
    receive and pick up messages from other cells
  4. cell body
    the cell's life support center
  5. axon
    a long tubular structure that passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands
  6. neural impulse
    is an electrical signal that travels down the axon
  7. terminal branches of axon
    form junctions with other cells
  8. myelin sheath
    covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses
  9. types of neurons
    • multipolar
    • bipolar
    • unipolar
  10. neurotransmitters
    • acetycholine (ACh)
    • dopamine
    • serotonin
    • norepinephrine
    • GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
    • glutamate
  11. acetylcholine
    enables muscle action, learning, and memroy
  12. dopamine
    influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion
  13. serotonin
    affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
  14. norepinephrine
    helps control alertness and arousal
  15. GABA (gamma-aninobutyric acid)
    a manor inhibitory neurotransmitter
  16. glutamate
    major excitatory neuron-transmitter; involved in memory
  17. autonomic nervous system
    • §the part of the peripheral nervous
    • system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as
    • the heart)
  18. sympathetic nervous system
    • division of the autonomic nervous system
    • that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
  19. parasympathetic nervous system
    division of the autonomic nervous system that clams the body, coserving its energy
  20. reflex
    a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus
  21. lesion
    • tissue destruction
    • naturally or experimentally caused
  22. what are the 3 main functions of the nervous system?
    • * receiving input from the senses
    • *processing information by relating it to the previous experiences
    • * producing and monitorying bodily actions or output
  23. what are the two main cell types in the nervous system??
    neurons - specialized to respond rapidly to signals and send signals of their own

    • glial cells- physically hold neurons within the nervous system
    • - help guide growth of neurons
    • -aborb chemicals to maintain stable chemical environment
  24. resting potential
    the gates are closed and positive ions are on the outside with the negative ions on the inside of the cell
  25. action potential
    • -a neural impulse, a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon
    • -generalted by the movement of the positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane
    • -this process is due to stimulation from either heat, chemicals, pressure, or light.
  26. refractory period
    the time it takes for the positive ions to be pumped out
  27. threshold
    • -the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
    • -neurons either fire or don't fire: this is called the all or nothing principle
  28. Is the axon membrane selectively permeable?
    Yes, it has gates which keep electrically charged particles (ions) to enter or keep out
  29. What does the sodium pump do?
    picks up any positive ions from the inside and puts them back outside
  30. what is action potential?
    when stimulus is large enough to excite a neuron (breaks threshold)- it stops the sodium pump and opens the axon membrane gates which causes the iside and outside of the axon to reverse its charge- it depolarizes the neurons.
  31. what are receptors?
    receptors receive the neurontransmitters released by the end bulbs
  32. what is a refractory period?
    • a brief time after an action potential during which a neuron cannot fire another action potential.
    • It repolarizes the neuron by the ions moving back to their original spots
  33. what are interneurons?
    neurons that have no axons or very short axons. they integrate information with a structure rather than sending information between structures.
  34. types of glia cells
    • satellite
    • astrocytes
    • oligodendrocytes
    • nacroglia
  35. satellite cells
    support cells outside of the brain and spinal cord
  36. astrocyte
    • largest glia and are named astrocytes because they tend to be star shaped
    • they fill the space between neurons, resulting in close contact between the two
    • involved in brain-blood barrier
    • regulate how far neurostransmitters, released by the terminal button, can spread
    • store neurotransmitters
    • regulate chemical levels in the extracellular space
  37. oligodendrocytes
    • make myelin
    • they wrap their processes around most axons in the brain and spinal cord
  38. microglia
    • smallest of the glia cells
    • remove debris from the nervous system
  39. what's the electrical charge state of a resting neuron?
    -70 millivolts
  40. Central Nervous System
    part of your nervous system that is encased by bone - includes the brain and spinal cord
  41. Peripheral nervous system
    • exists outside of protection from bone
    • - autonomic nervous system : primarily responsible for regulating internal states
    • -----has sympathetic nerves and parasympathetic nerves
    • - somatic nervous system : primarily responsible for interacting with the external environment
  42. Spinal cord
    • the spinal cord is gray on the inside and white on the outside
    • has 31 segments and each of these segments has a pair of spinal nerves attached to it
  43. what are the 5 groups of segments for the spinal cord?
    8 cervical segments, 12 thoracic segments, 5 lumbar segments, 5 sacral segments, and 1 cossygeal segment
  44. dorsal bumps: inferior colliculi
    two bottom bumps that relay auditory information and help to control auditory reflexes (such as orienting oneself to a loud sound)
  45. dorsal bumps: superior colliculi
    relay visual information and control simple visual reflexes (such as blinking)
  46. neurons
    Image Upload
  47. soma
    contains the nucleus and other parts of the cell needed to sustain its life
  48. myelin sheath
    fatty covering around the axon of some neurons that speed neural impulses
  49. excitatory neurotransmitters
    chemicals released from the terminal button of a neuron that excite the next neuron into firing
  50. inhibitory neurons
    inhibit the next neuron from firing
  51. acetycholine
    • associated with motor movement
    • lack of this is associated with Alzheimer's disease
  52. dopamine
    • associated with motor movements and alertness
    • -lack of this associated with Parkinson's disease and overabundance with schizophrenia
  53. endorphins
    neurotransmitters associated with pain control
  54. afferent neurons
    • also called sensory neurons
    • carry info to the CNS
    • responsible for transmitting neural impulses
Card Set:
Psych 181 Midterm 1
2011-09-26 08:56:29

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