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transmit information from the organs and tissues to the Central Nervous System
transmit info from the CNS to the effector cells
receive and pick up messages from other cells
the cell's life support center
a long tubular structure that passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands
is an electrical signal that travels down the axon
terminal branches of axon
form junctions with other cells
covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses
types of neurons
- acetycholine (ACh)
- GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
enables muscle action, learning, and memroy
influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion
affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
helps control alertness and arousal
GABA (gamma-aninobutyric acid)
a manor inhibitory neurotransmitter
major excitatory neuron-transmitter; involved in memory
autonomic nervous system
- §the part of the peripheral nervous
- system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as
- the heart)
sympathetic nervous system
- division of the autonomic nervous system
- that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
parasympathetic nervous system
division of the autonomic nervous system that clams the body, coserving its energy
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus
- tissue destruction
- naturally or experimentally caused
what are the 3 main functions of the nervous system?
- * receiving input from the senses
- *processing information by relating it to the previous experiences
- * producing and monitorying bodily actions or output
what are the two main cell types in the nervous system??
neurons - specialized to respond rapidly to signals and send signals of their own
- glial cells- physically hold neurons within the nervous system
- - help guide growth of neurons
- -aborb chemicals to maintain stable chemical environment
the gates are closed and positive ions are on the outside with the negative ions on the inside of the cell
- -a neural impulse, a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon
- -generalted by the movement of the positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane
- -this process is due to stimulation from either heat, chemicals, pressure, or light.
the time it takes for the positive ions to be pumped out
- -the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
- -neurons either fire or don't fire: this is called the all or nothing principle
Is the axon membrane selectively permeable?
Yes, it has gates which keep electrically charged particles (ions) to enter or keep out
What does the sodium pump do?
picks up any positive ions from the inside and puts them back outside
what is action potential?
when stimulus is large enough to excite a neuron (breaks threshold)- it stops the sodium pump and opens the axon membrane gates which causes the iside and outside of the axon to reverse its charge- it depolarizes the neurons.
what are receptors?
receptors receive the neurontransmitters released by the end bulbs
what is a refractory period?
- a brief time after an action potential during which a neuron cannot fire another action potential.
- It repolarizes the neuron by the ions moving back to their original spots
what are interneurons?
neurons that have no axons or very short axons. they integrate information with a structure rather than sending information between structures.
types of glia cells
support cells outside of the brain and spinal cord
- largest glia and are named astrocytes because they tend to be star shaped
- they fill the space between neurons, resulting in close contact between the two
- involved in brain-blood barrier
- regulate how far neurostransmitters, released by the terminal button, can spread
- store neurotransmitters
- regulate chemical levels in the extracellular space
- make myelin
- they wrap their processes around most axons in the brain and spinal cord
- smallest of the glia cells
- remove debris from the nervous system
what's the electrical charge state of a resting neuron?
Central Nervous System
part of your nervous system that is encased by bone - includes the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
- exists outside of protection from bone
- has TWO MAJOR DIVISIONS
- - autonomic nervous system : primarily responsible for regulating internal states
- -----has sympathetic nerves and parasympathetic nerves
- - somatic nervous system : primarily responsible for interacting with the external environment
- the spinal cord is gray on the inside and white on the outside
- has 31 segments and each of these segments has a pair of spinal nerves attached to it
what are the 5 groups of segments for the spinal cord?
8 cervical segments, 12 thoracic segments, 5 lumbar segments, 5 sacral segments, and 1 cossygeal segment
dorsal bumps: inferior colliculi
two bottom bumps that relay auditory information and help to control auditory reflexes (such as orienting oneself to a loud sound)
dorsal bumps: superior colliculi
relay visual information and control simple visual reflexes (such as blinking)
contains the nucleus and other parts of the cell needed to sustain its life
fatty covering around the axon of some neurons that speed neural impulses
chemicals released from the terminal button of a neuron that excite the next neuron into firing
inhibit the next neuron from firing
- associated with motor movement
- lack of this is associated with Alzheimer's disease
- associated with motor movements and alertness
- -lack of this associated with Parkinson's disease and overabundance with schizophrenia
neurotransmitters associated with pain control
- also called sensory neurons
- carry info to the CNS
- responsible for transmitting neural impulses