Ch.8 Extrication

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nolecat3
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104076
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Ch.8 Extrication
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2011-09-25 12:44:55
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extrication
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  1. Inverter
    • A step-up transformer that converts a vehicle's 12- or 24-volt DC current into 110- or 220-volt AC current
    • Useful when small amounts of power are needed
  2. Inverter Advantages & Disadvantages
    • Advantages: Fuel efficiency & low noise
    • Disadvantages: Limited power supply & limited mobility
  3. The most common power source used for emergency services; portable or vehicle-mounted
    Generators
  4. What are the two categories of lighting?
    Portable & Fixed
  5. Portable lights
    • Range from 300 to 1,000 watts
    • Some are mounted with telescoping stands
  6. Fixed lights
    • 500 to 1,500 watts
    • Vehicle mounted, usually telescoping
  7. What happens when you overtax the power plant?
    It gives you poor lighting, may damage the equipment, & may restrict the operation of other electrical tools
  8. What do twist-lock adaptors do?
    They are designed to prevent the plug from slipping out of the receptacle
  9. A luminous discharge of electricity across a gap that produce very high temperature
    Arc
  10. How long can fuel be left in equipment before it needs to be changed?
    Three weeks
  11. The four basic types of powered hydrolic tools used for rescue
    • Spreaders
    • Shears
    • Combination spreaders/shears
    • Extension Rams
  12. Spreaders
    • The first powered hydrolic tools to become available to fire service
    • Can spread as much as 32"
    • Produces tons of force at tips
  13. Shears
    • Some models can't cut case-hardened steel
    • Open about 7"
    • Capable of producing tons of cutting force
  14. Combination Spreader/Shears
    • Great for a small rapid-intervention vehicle
    • Great for fire dept. with limited resources
    • Less capabilty than seperate tools
  15. Extension Rams
    • Primarily designed for straight pushing
    • Can extend from 3' to 5' in length
    • Closing force is about one-half that of the opening force
  16. Manual Hydraulic Tools
    • Porta-Power Tool System & Hydrolic Jack
    • Advantages: Inexpensive, light weight, can be used in areas where power is not available
    • Disadvantages: Operate slowly, limited range of operation, labor intensive
  17. Porta-Power Tools System
    • Consists of a variety of accessories
    • Can be operated in narrow places where jack will not fit or can't be operated
    • A disadvantage of the tool is that it is time consuming
  18. Hydraulic Jack
    • Designed for heavy lifting
    • Have lifting capacities of up to 20 tons
    • Must have flat, level footing
  19. Screw Jack
    • Bar Screw Jack: Heavy-duty devices, used for supporting structural memebers. Primary use is to hold object in place, not movevit.
    • Trench Screw Jack: Sometimes used to replace wooden cross braces in trench rescue
  20. What should you do whenever you lift an inch?
    Crib an inch
  21. What is shoring?
    Lengths of timber, jacks, or other devices that can be used as temporary support for framework or structural components
  22. Ratchet-Lever Jacks
    • High-Lift Jacks
    • Dangerous because they are the least stable of all jacks
    • Can fail under heavy loads
  23. Cribbing
    Varying lengths of hardwood, usually 4x4-inch or larger, used to stablize vehicles & collapsed buildings
  24. What is the most common sizes of cribbing?
    • 2x4", 4x4", & 6x6"
    • Most common lengths are 16-24"
  25. Why might plastic cribbing be better than wooden?
    • It does not become contaminated by absorbing fuel, oil, & other substances
    • Lasts longer
  26. What should you never use with pneumatic tools?
    • Compressed O2
    • Mixing it with grease & oils found on the tools will result in fire or explosion
  27. What does pneumatic mean?
    Air-powered
  28. Pneumatic Tools
    Can be supplied by vehicle-mounted air compressors, apparatus brake system compressors, SCBA cylinders, or cascade system cylinders
  29. Air Chisels
    • Operate at levels between 90 & 250 psi
    • Good for use on medium to heavy-gauge sheet metal & popping rivets/bolts.
  30. Other pnuematic tools
    • Pneumatic nailers
    • Impact tools
    • Air knife
    • Air vacuum
    • Whizzer saw
  31. Impact Tool
    • Impact wrenches
    • Ideal for disassembling machinery in which a victim is entangled
  32. Air Knife
    • Blasts away surface dirt
    • Can almost instantly create a hole 1 foot in diameter
    • When operated @ 90-100 psi exit velocity is close to mach 2
  33. What can you use togethor to remove soil in a trench collapse?
    Air-vacuum & the air knife
  34. Air Vacuum
    Can pick up loose soil and rocks up to 2 3/4" in diameter
  35. Whizzer Saw
    • Weighs about 2 lbs
    • Operates @ 20,000 rpm, 3" blade cuts case-hardened locks & steel stock up to 3/4" in thickness
    • Operates @ 90 psi, can run for 3-min. on a full SCBA bottle
    • Great for cutting rings
  36. Tripods
    Used to lower and hoist rescuers into and out of confined spaces
  37. Winches
    • Should be applied as close to the object being pulled as possible so that if the cable breaks, there will be less cable to recoil.
    • Should have hand-held, remote-controlled devices
    • Should never be used with a live person load
    • Operator should stand away the length of the cable
  38. Come-Alongs
    Most common sizes or ratings are 1 to 10 tons
  39. Chains
    • Only alloy steel chains of the right size should be used in rescue work
    • Proof coil chain is not suited for rescue applications
  40. Pneumatic Lifting Bags
    • High-pressure bag: Deflated bags are 1" thick. Come in sizes that range from 6x6" to 36x36". May inflate to 20".
    • Low/medium pressure bags: Most commonly used to lift vehicles. Large than high-pressure bags. May lift up to 6' tall.
  41. If damage or deterioration is found what should be done with airbags?
    They should be removed from service
  42. Stacking lifting bags
    Only two at a time with the larger bag on the bottom
  43. Block and Tackle Systems
    Series of pulleys (sheaves) contained within a wood/metal frame. Used with rope to give a mechanical advantage
  44. What is the most common type of rescue for fire dept?
    Motor vehicle extrications
  45. Should the headlights on the engine be left on during the incident?
    DOT says that they should turned off unless illuminating the incident because of blinding or distraction
  46. How many lanes of traffice should be closed next to the accident lane?
    At least one
  47. Who is responsible for traffic control on scene?
    Law enforcement once they get there
  48. What areas should be searched around the vehicles involved in crash?
    One rescuer searches around the first car, a second rescuer would search around the second car, & a third rescuer would search around both cars
  49. What is the primary goal of stabilization?
    To prevent sudden or unexpected movement of the vehicle
  50. Choking Wheels
    • On level ground. use cribbing to chock wheels in both directions
    • On an incline chock wheels on the downhill side
  51. How are most vehicles found at crashes?
    Upright
  52. Cribbing Method
    When cribbing under a vehicle you should never place any part of your body underneath the vehicle. It should be pushed under with another piece of cribbing
  53. How long can restraint systems remain operational after power is cut?
    Up to 30 minutes
  54. What color cable should you not touch or cut in a vehicle?
    • One with orange insulation
    • Can have currents from 144 to 300 volts DC
  55. The three methods fo gaining access to victims in vehicles
    • Through a normally operating door
    • Through a window
    • By cutting away parts of the vehicle body
  56. Hazards involved with vehicle crashes
    • Oil and air-filled struts for hoods, trunk lids, & bumpers
    • Fuel & other flammable liquids
    • High-pressure tires
    • Contents of trunk or vehicle interior
  57. SRS
    Supplemental Restraint Systems
  58. SIPS
    Side-Impact Protection Systems
  59. At what speed do airbags deploy?
    200 mph
  60. What is the primary way to prevent airbags from deploying at a crash?
    • Turn the ignition off, disconnect both battery cables, & wait for the reserve power supply to drain down
    • Some SIPS can deploy even if the battery is disconnected
  61. Gaining access to patients in a vehicle
    • Rescuers should choose the easiest route available
    • Try to open the doors normally
    • Remove a window if the doors are jammed
  62. How should the pt. be extricated?
    It is important to remember to move the vehicle from around the pt. and not the other way around
  63. Laminated Safety Glass
    • Made with two sheets of glass on sanwiched together with a sheet of plastic between them
    • Glass stays attached when broken
    • Usually found on windshields and some rear windows
  64. Tempered Glass
    • Most commonly used on side windows
    • When broken it breaks into tiny little shards
  65. Removing laminated glass
    • If possible you should leave the windshield intact
    • Can be cut with:
    • Air Chisel
    • Axe
    • Reciprocating Saw
    • Handsaw w/ course blade
    • Hay Hook
    • Windshield Saw
  66. Removing Tempered Glass
    • Use a spring-loaded center punch on the lower corner of the window
    • Can also use a halligan, pick-head axe. or phillips screw-driver
    • Choose window farthest from the victim
    • You can use a spray adhesive or adhesive paper to window to prevent it from breaking into tiny pieces
  67. What should you look for before cutting door posts?
    Air bag activating systems
  68. When removing a roof where is the first cut made?
    On the A post
  69. What happens to unibody vehicles when the roof are removed?
    • They are prone to collapse
    • A third step block should be placed under the B post of the vehicle
  70. Displacing the dashboard
    • Once the door is removed, relief cuts should be made on the A post.
    • An extension ram can then be placed in the doorway and the dashboard can be rolled forward off of the Pt.
  71. Pancake collapse
    • When simultaneous failure of of exterior walls results in the upper floors and the roof collapsing on top of each other
    • Least likely to contain voids where live victims can be found
  72. V-shaped collapse
    • Occurs when outer walls remain intact and upper floors and roof collapse
    • Good chance of habitable void spaces created along the outer walls
  73. Lean-to collapse
    • Occurs when one walls fails and the other remains intact
    • Forms a triangle void underneath taht may contain victims
  74. A-frame collapse
    • Occurs when the floor and/or roof assemblies on both sides of a center wall collaspe into what might be seen as opposing lean-to collapse
    • Offers a good chance of habitable void spaces on both sides
  75. Cantilever Collapse
    • Occurs when one or more walls of a multistory building collapse leaving the floors remaining in contact
    • Least stable of all collapses
    • Most vulnerable to secondary collapse
  76. Most common causes of a secondary collapse
    • Aftershock
    • Movement of structural members
    • Weather conditions
  77. Structural Collapse Hazards
    • Environmental: Damaged utilities, atmospheric contamination, hazmat contamination, darkness, noise, fire, or temperature extremes
    • Physical: Working in/around piles of heavy rubble, secondary collapses, unstable debris, confined spaces, around exposed wiring & rebar, dealing w/ heights
  78. Shoring
    A general term used to describe any means by which unstable structures or parts of structures can be stabilized
  79. What is the first decision that is made in a trench cave-in?
    Whether it is a rescue or a body recovery
  80. How far should exit ladders extend above the top of the trench?
    At least 3'
  81. What are some safety precautions to take with trench cave-ins?
    • Do not enter until safely shored
    • Be careful when tools are being used
    • Be aware of other hazards, like wiring, water lines, or toxic/flammable gases
    • Cordon off 100'
    • Eliminate sources of vibration within 500'
  82. Characteristics of Confined Spaces according to OSHA
    • Large enough and configured so an employee can enter & perform assigned work
    • It has limited or restricted means for entry & exit
    • It is not designed for continuous employee occuapancy
  83. Common types of confined spaces
    • Tanks/vessles
    • Silos/grain elevators
    • Storage bins/hoppers
    • Utility vaults/pits
    • Aqueducts/sewers
    • Cisterns/wells
    • Coffer dams
    • Storage tanks
  84. Atmospheric conditions of confined spaces
    • O2 definciency
    • Flammable gases/vapors
    • Toxic gases
    • Extreme temperatures
    • Explosive dusts
  85. Physical hazard of confined spaces
    • Limited means of entry/egress
    • Cave-ins/ Instabilty
    • Standing water or other liquids
    • Utility hazards

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