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- A step-up transformer that converts a vehicle's 12- or 24-volt DC current into 110- or 220-volt AC current
- Useful when small amounts of power are needed
Inverter Advantages & Disadvantages
- Advantages: Fuel efficiency & low noise
- Disadvantages: Limited power supply & limited mobility
The most common power source used for emergency services; portable or vehicle-mounted
What are the two categories of lighting?
Portable & Fixed
- Range from 300 to 1,000 watts
- Some are mounted with telescoping stands
- 500 to 1,500 watts
- Vehicle mounted, usually telescoping
What happens when you overtax the power plant?
It gives you poor lighting, may damage the equipment, & may restrict the operation of other electrical tools
What do twist-lock adaptors do?
They are designed to prevent the plug from slipping out of the receptacle
A luminous discharge of electricity across a gap that produce very high temperature
How long can fuel be left in equipment before it needs to be changed?
The four basic types of powered hydrolic tools used for rescue
- Combination spreaders/shears
- Extension Rams
- The first powered hydrolic tools to become available to fire service
- Can spread as much as 32"
- Produces tons of force at tips
- Some models can't cut case-hardened steel
- Open about 7"
- Capable of producing tons of cutting force
- Great for a small rapid-intervention vehicle
- Great for fire dept. with limited resources
- Less capabilty than seperate tools
- Primarily designed for straight pushing
- Can extend from 3' to 5' in length
- Closing force is about one-half that of the opening force
Manual Hydraulic Tools
- Porta-Power Tool System & Hydrolic Jack
- Advantages: Inexpensive, light weight, can be used in areas where power is not available
- Disadvantages: Operate slowly, limited range of operation, labor intensive
Porta-Power Tools System
- Consists of a variety of accessories
- Can be operated in narrow places where jack will not fit or can't be operated
- A disadvantage of the tool is that it is time consuming
- Designed for heavy lifting
- Have lifting capacities of up to 20 tons
- Must have flat, level footing
- Bar Screw Jack: Heavy-duty devices, used for supporting structural memebers. Primary use is to hold object in place, not movevit.
- Trench Screw Jack: Sometimes used to replace wooden cross braces in trench rescue
What should you do whenever you lift an inch?
Crib an inch
What is shoring?
Lengths of timber, jacks, or other devices that can be used as temporary support for framework or structural components
- High-Lift Jacks
- Dangerous because they are the least stable of all jacks
- Can fail under heavy loads
Varying lengths of hardwood, usually 4x4-inch or larger, used to stablize vehicles & collapsed buildings
What is the most common sizes of cribbing?
- 2x4", 4x4", & 6x6"
- Most common lengths are 16-24"
Why might plastic cribbing be better than wooden?
- It does not become contaminated by absorbing fuel, oil, & other substances
- Lasts longer
What should you never use with pneumatic tools?
- Compressed O2
- Mixing it with grease & oils found on the tools will result in fire or explosion
What does pneumatic mean?
Can be supplied by vehicle-mounted air compressors, apparatus brake system compressors, SCBA cylinders, or cascade system cylinders
- Operate at levels between 90 & 250 psi
- Good for use on medium to heavy-gauge sheet metal & popping rivets/bolts.
Other pnuematic tools
- Pneumatic nailers
- Impact tools
- Air knife
- Air vacuum
- Whizzer saw
- Impact wrenches
- Ideal for disassembling machinery in which a victim is entangled
- Blasts away surface dirt
- Can almost instantly create a hole 1 foot in diameter
- When operated @ 90-100 psi exit velocity is close to mach 2
What can you use togethor to remove soil in a trench collapse?
Air-vacuum & the air knife
Can pick up loose soil and rocks up to 2 3/4" in diameter
- Weighs about 2 lbs
- Operates @ 20,000 rpm, 3" blade cuts case-hardened locks & steel stock up to 3/4" in thickness
- Operates @ 90 psi, can run for 3-min. on a full SCBA bottle
- Great for cutting rings
Used to lower and hoist rescuers into and out of confined spaces
- Should be applied as close to the object being pulled as possible so that if the cable breaks, there will be less cable to recoil.
- Should have hand-held, remote-controlled devices
- Should never be used with a live person load
- Operator should stand away the length of the cable
Most common sizes or ratings are 1 to 10 tons
- Only alloy steel chains of the right size should be used in rescue work
- Proof coil chain is not suited for rescue applications
Pneumatic Lifting Bags
- High-pressure bag: Deflated bags are 1" thick. Come in sizes that range from 6x6" to 36x36". May inflate to 20".
- Low/medium pressure bags: Most commonly used to lift vehicles. Large than high-pressure bags. May lift up to 6' tall.
If damage or deterioration is found what should be done with airbags?
They should be removed from service
Stacking lifting bags
Only two at a time with the larger bag on the bottom
Block and Tackle Systems
Series of pulleys (sheaves) contained within a wood/metal frame. Used with rope to give a mechanical advantage
What is the most common type of rescue for fire dept?
Motor vehicle extrications
Should the headlights on the engine be left on during the incident?
DOT says that they should turned off unless illuminating the incident because of blinding or distraction
How many lanes of traffice should be closed next to the accident lane?
At least one
Who is responsible for traffic control on scene?
Law enforcement once they get there
What areas should be searched around the vehicles involved in crash?
One rescuer searches around the first car, a second rescuer would search around the second car, & a third rescuer would search around both cars
What is the primary goal of stabilization?
To prevent sudden or unexpected movement of the vehicle
- On level ground. use cribbing to chock wheels in both directions
- On an incline chock wheels on the downhill side
How are most vehicles found at crashes?
When cribbing under a vehicle you should never place any part of your body underneath the vehicle. It should be pushed under with another piece of cribbing
How long can restraint systems remain operational after power is cut?
Up to 30 minutes
What color cable should you not touch or cut in a vehicle?
- One with orange insulation
- Can have currents from 144 to 300 volts DC
The three methods fo gaining access to victims in vehicles
- Through a normally operating door
- Through a window
- By cutting away parts of the vehicle body
Hazards involved with vehicle crashes
- Oil and air-filled struts for hoods, trunk lids, & bumpers
- Fuel & other flammable liquids
- High-pressure tires
- Contents of trunk or vehicle interior
Supplemental Restraint Systems
Side-Impact Protection Systems
At what speed do airbags deploy?
What is the primary way to prevent airbags from deploying at a crash?
- Turn the ignition off, disconnect both battery cables, & wait for the reserve power supply to drain down
- Some SIPS can deploy even if the battery is disconnected
Gaining access to patients in a vehicle
- Rescuers should choose the easiest route available
- Try to open the doors normally
- Remove a window if the doors are jammed
How should the pt. be extricated?
It is important to remember to move the vehicle from around the pt. and not the other way around
Laminated Safety Glass
- Made with two sheets of glass on sanwiched together with a sheet of plastic between them
- Glass stays attached when broken
- Usually found on windshields and some rear windows
- Most commonly used on side windows
- When broken it breaks into tiny little shards
Removing laminated glass
- If possible you should leave the windshield intact
- Can be cut with:
- Air Chisel
- Reciprocating Saw
- Handsaw w/ course blade
- Hay Hook
- Windshield Saw
Removing Tempered Glass
- Use a spring-loaded center punch on the lower corner of the window
- Can also use a halligan, pick-head axe. or phillips screw-driver
- Choose window farthest from the victim
- You can use a spray adhesive or adhesive paper to window to prevent it from breaking into tiny pieces
What should you look for before cutting door posts?
Air bag activating systems
When removing a roof where is the first cut made?
On the A post
What happens to unibody vehicles when the roof are removed?
- They are prone to collapse
- A third step block should be placed under the B post of the vehicle
Displacing the dashboard
- Once the door is removed, relief cuts should be made on the A post.
- An extension ram can then be placed in the doorway and the dashboard can be rolled forward off of the Pt.
- When simultaneous failure of of exterior walls results in the upper floors and the roof collapsing on top of each other
- Least likely to contain voids where live victims can be found
- Occurs when outer walls remain intact and upper floors and roof collapse
- Good chance of habitable void spaces created along the outer walls
- Occurs when one walls fails and the other remains intact
- Forms a triangle void underneath taht may contain victims
- Occurs when the floor and/or roof assemblies on both sides of a center wall collaspe into what might be seen as opposing lean-to collapse
- Offers a good chance of habitable void spaces on both sides
- Occurs when one or more walls of a multistory building collapse leaving the floors remaining in contact
- Least stable of all collapses
- Most vulnerable to secondary collapse
Most common causes of a secondary collapse
- Movement of structural members
- Weather conditions
Structural Collapse Hazards
- Environmental: Damaged utilities, atmospheric contamination, hazmat contamination, darkness, noise, fire, or temperature extremes
- Physical: Working in/around piles of heavy rubble, secondary collapses, unstable debris, confined spaces, around exposed wiring & rebar, dealing w/ heights
A general term used to describe any means by which unstable structures or parts of structures can be stabilized
What is the first decision that is made in a trench cave-in?
Whether it is a rescue or a body recovery
How far should exit ladders extend above the top of the trench?
At least 3'
What are some safety precautions to take with trench cave-ins?
- Do not enter until safely shored
- Be careful when tools are being used
- Be aware of other hazards, like wiring, water lines, or toxic/flammable gases
- Cordon off 100'
- Eliminate sources of vibration within 500'
Characteristics of Confined Spaces according to OSHA
- Large enough and configured so an employee can enter & perform assigned work
- It has limited or restricted means for entry & exit
- It is not designed for continuous employee occuapancy
Common types of confined spaces
- Silos/grain elevators
- Storage bins/hoppers
- Utility vaults/pits
- Coffer dams
- Storage tanks
Atmospheric conditions of confined spaces
- O2 definciency
- Flammable gases/vapors
- Toxic gases
- Extreme temperatures
- Explosive dusts
Physical hazard of confined spaces
- Limited means of entry/egress
- Cave-ins/ Instabilty
- Standing water or other liquids
- Utility hazards