medic12 pharmacology_test

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medic12 pharmacology_test
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  1. Study of drugs and their interactions with the body?
    pharmacology
  2. Drug or other substance that blocks the actions of the sympathetic nervous system?
    sympatholytic
  3. ________ is the preferred antihypertensive for the management of pregnancy induced hypertension.
    Apresoline
  4. Because they can thicken brochial secretions, you should not use ________ in patients with asthma.
    antihistamine
  5. The following describes a Schedule _______ drug: High abuse potential; may lead to severe dependence; acceptied medical indications.
    II
  6. An example of anticholingeric drug used in the treatment of asthma is:
    atropine
  7. The drug name found in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is its:
    official name
  8. The drug name that is derived from its chemical composition is referred to as its:
    chemical name
  9. The proprietary name of a drug, such as Valium, is the same as the:
    trade name
  10. Drug legislation was instituted in 1906 by the:
    Pure Food and Drug Act
  11. ________ drug sources may provide alternative sources of medications to those found in nature, or they may be entirely new medications not found in nature.
    Synthetic
  12. The six rights of medication administration include the right:
    medication, dose, time, route, patient and documentation
  13. Which of the following routes is the least appropriate for medication administration in the prehospital setting?
    oral, sublingual, subcutaneous, intravenous
    oral
  14. Drugs manufactured in gelatin containers are called:
    capsules
  15. A drugs pharmacodynamics involve its ability to cause the expected response, or:
    efficacy
  16. A type of anethesia that combines decreased sensation of pain with amnesia, while the patient remains conscious, is a(n);
    neuroleptanesthesia
  17. __________ agents oppose the parasympathetic nervous system.
    Anticholinergic
  18. In antidysrhythmic classifications, Class IA drugs include all of the following except:
    quinidine, lidocaine, procainamide, disopyramide
    lidocaine
  19. One of aspirin's primary side effects is:
    bleeding
  20. ________ are mediators released from mast cells upon contact with allergens.
    Leukotrienes
  21. What are adreneric receptors in the sympathetic system?
    • they are receptors on the postsynaptic nerves that interact with norepinephrine that has crossed the synaptic cleft.
    • specialized adrenergic receptors exists on the membranes of target organs that interact with both epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  22. Examples of Alpha 1 receptors
    • RESPONSE TO STIMULATION, LOCATION
    • contriction, arterioles
    • constriction, veins
    • mydriasis, eye
    • ejaculation, penis
  23. Examples of Alpha 2 receptor
    • RESPONSE TO STIMULATION, LOCATION
    • presynaptic terminals inhibition
    • (stimulation of Alpha 2 adrenergic receptors inhibits the continued release of norepinephrine from the presynaptic terminal. It is a feedback mechanism that limits the adrenergic response at that synapse. These receptors have no other identified peripheral effects.)
  24. Examples of Beta 1 receptors
    • increased heart rate, heart
    • increased conductivity
    • increased automaticity
    • increased contractility
    • renin release, kidney
  25. Examples of Beta 2 receptors
    • bronchodilation, lungs
    • dilation, arterioles
    • inhibition of contractions, uterus
    • tremors, skeletal muscle
  26. Examples of Beta 3 receptor
    lipolysis, adipose tissue
  27. Examples of Dopaminergic receptor
    vasodilation (increased blood flow), kidney
  28. Compare the effects of stimulating vs blocking of Alpha, Beta and Dopaminergic receptors?
    (probably an essay question)
    stimulating alpha1 will promote fight/flight (ie constrict arterioles and veins, mydriasis the eyes). when alpha1 is blocked it will inhibit the fight/flight. beta1 is similar to alpha1 in that it prepares for fight/flight (ie increased heartrate, conductivity, automaticity and contractility). blocking beta1 will inhibit the fight/flight. if you inhibit alpha1 and beta1 you will provide an opportunity for the parasympathetic nervous system to prosper. beta2 stimulation is conducive to feed/breed (ie bronchodialtion, arterioles dialation). it allows for a more normal less stressful state. blocking beta3 will allow for the sympathetic nervous system to prosper. dopaminergic stimulation causes vasodilation that will provide conditions for a more normal state since the important organs for fight/flight do not need the increased bloodflow and other parts of the body may reep the benefit.
  29. What's a cholenergic overdose?
    organonphosphate poisoning
  30. How do you treat organophosphate poisoning?
    atropine
  31. What's the acronym for organophosphate poisoning?
    SLUDGE
  32. What does SLUDGE stand for?
    salavation, lacrimation, urination, defication, gastric motility, emesis

    (~everything that can release fluid)
  33. prototype benzodiazapine
    diazepam
  34. prototype opiod
    morphine (p320)
  35. what is the largets selling class of OTC drus in the U.S.?
    antihistamines (& GERD)
  36. What is extrpyramidal symptoms (EPS)?
    common side effect of antipsychotic medications, include muscle tremors and parkinsonism-like effects
  37. dystonic reaction
  38. What do you treat a dystonic reaction with?
    DYPHENHYDRAMINE (Benadryl)
  39. What does a dystonic reaction present like?
    fat swollen tongue
  40. What type of drug is typically routed through the GI track?
    eternal
  41. antagonist:
    bind to a site but do not cause the receptor to initiate the expected response.
  42. cross tolerance
  43. synergism
    a drug reaction that is greater than expected from the administration of two drugs that have the same effect at the same time.
  44. drug dependence
  45. How do diuretics work?
    release through intracellular fluid
  46. tetragenesis
    fetus doesn't like the drug
  47. teratogenic drug
    during 1st trimester of pregnancy the ingestion of these drugs may potentially deform, injure or kill the fetus.
  48. Example of a selective beta agonist?
    ALBUTEROL
  49. bioavailability
    amount of a drug that is still active after it reaches its target tissue.
  50. pharmacokinetics
    • how drugs are transported into and out of the body.
    • (absorbtion, distribution, biotransformation and elimination)
  51. pharmacodynamics
    interaction between drugs (p260)
  52. Drugs like atropine block the muscaratic receptors in the peripheral nervous system would be classified as a _______?
    parasympatholytic
  53. Benzodiazapines and barbituates achieve their sedation by what?
    hyperpolarizing gamma receptors
  54. A patient experiencing myocardial infarction, administration of a medication that reduces afterload is beneficial why?
    it reduces the workload of the heart thus reducing myocardial O2 demand
  55. prototype anticholinergic
    atropine (p338)
  56. parenternal drug routes
    any area outside of the GI tract
  57. neurotransmitter that serves both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
    acetylcholine (p333)
  58. drug that stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system
    parasympathomimetic (p334)
  59. a cholinergic drug is also...
    a parasympathomimetic (p334)
  60. stimulation of what receptor causes both vasodilation and bronchodilation
    Beta 2 (p342)
  61. what receptor is inhibitory?
    Alpha 2 (p342)
  62. acronym that describes the effects of cholinergic stimulation
    SLUDGE (p336)
  63. sympathetic nervous system orinates from
    the thoracic and lumbar region of the spinal cord
  64. it has been long thought that stimulation of which receptor caused dilation of the renal, coronary, and cerebral ateries?
    dopaminergic (p342)
  65. which type of drug decreases cardiac contractility and heart rate?
    Beta 1 antagonist (p344)
  66. type of drug that causes bronchodilation
    Beta 2 agonist
  67. administration of digoxin...
    increases strength of cardiac muscle contraction (p359)
  68. primary action of nitroglycerin in angina is to...
    reduce preload
  69. what is the 1st line therapy for asthma
    selective Beta 2 agonists
  70. nasal decongestants act by
    constricting nasal capillaries
  71. an agent that binds to a receptor site to cause its intended response
    agonist
  72. receptor site
    point of attachment at cellular level for drugs, viruses, or chemicals
  73. Schedule II (A) DRUG
    drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse
  74. Schedule II (B) DRUG
    drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions.
  75. Schedule II (C) DRUG
    abuse of the drug or other substances may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.
  76. Anesthetic
    drug-induced loss of consciousness during which patients are not arousable, even by painful stimulation.
  77. Analgesic
    blocking the conscious sensation of pain
  78. Agonist
    drug which binds with a receptor site causing the desiring effect.
  79. Antagonist
    drug which binds with a receptor site, blocking it, but not causing the desired effect
  80. Half Life
    the period of time required for the concentration or amount of drug in the body to be reduced by one-half.
  81. Beta Agonist effects:
    • Beta 1 (heart) - increase chronotropic (rate), inotropic (contractility), dromotropic (conductivity)
    • Beta 2 (lungs and body) bronchodilation
  82. Opiate properties
    • analgesia, euphoria, sedation and miosis
    • decreases preload and afterload - workload - BP
    • (may cause respiratory depression and hypotension)
  83. Prototype drug
    drug which best exhibits all of the qualities of a drug class
  84. Medications that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system are __________.
    sympathomimetics
  85. Constriction of arterioles...
    increases afterload.
  86. Constriction of venules...
    increases preload.
  87. preload
    the amount of blood delivered to the heart during diastole (when the heart fills with blood between contractions)
  88. afterload
    the resistance a contraction of the heart must overcome in order to eject blood
  89. prototype cardioselective beta-blocker
    METOPROLOL (Lopressor)
  90. prototype centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant
    BACLOFEN (Lioresal)
  91. prototype direct-acting muscle relaxant
    DANTROLENE (Dantrium)
  92. ANTIDYSRHYTHMIC
    Sodium Channel Blockers IA
    • Prototype
    • procainamide
    • ECG Effects
    • widened QRS, prolonged QT
  93. ANTIDYSRHYTHMIC
    Sodium Channel Blockers IB
    • Prototype
    • lidocaine
    • ECG Effects
    • widened QRS, prolonged QT
  94. ANTIDYSRHYTHMIC
    Sodium Channel Blockers IC
    • Prototype
    • flecainide
    • ECG Effects
    • prolonged PR, widened QRS
  95. ANTIDYSRHYTHMIC
    Sodium Channel Blockers I
    • Prototype
    • moricizine
    • ECG Effects
    • prolonged PR, widened QRS
  96. ANTIDYSRHYTHMIC
    Beta-Blockers II
    • Prototype
    • propranolol
    • ECG Effects
    • prolonged PR, bradycardias
  97. ANTIDYSRHYTHMIC
    Potasium Channel Blockers III
    • Prototype
    • bretylium
    • ECG Effects
    • prolonged QT
  98. ANTIDYSRHYTHMIC
    Miscellaneous
    • adenosine, digoxin
    • ECG Effects
    • prolonged PR, bradycardias
  99. ANTIDYSRHYTHMIC
    Calcium Channel Blocker II
    • Prototype
    • verapamil
    • ECG Effects
    • prolonged PR, bradycardias
  100. sedation
    state of decreased anxiety and inhibitions
  101. miosis
    constriction of the pupil of the eye to two millimeters or less
  102. mydriasis
    dilation of the pupil due to disease, trauma
  103. prototype
    drug that best demonstrates the class's common properties and illustrates its particular characteristics
  104. cross tollerance
    tolerance for a drug that develops after administration of a different drug. morphine and other opeiod agents are common examples. tolerance for 1 agent implies tolerance for others as well.
  105. drug dependence
    the patient becomes accustomed to the drug's presence in his body and will suffer from withdrawl symptoms upon its absence. the dependence may be physical or psychological.
  106. parasympathomimetic
    causes effects like those of the parasympathetic nervous system (also called cholinergic)
  107. parasympatholytic
    blocks or inhibits the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system
  108. vaughn-williams and singh antidysrhythmic classification system
    • I: sodium channel blockers (Na+)
    • 1A
    • 1B
    • 1C
    • II: Beta-blockers
    • III: Potasium (K+) channel blockers
    • IV: Calcium (Ca+) channel blockers
    • V: Miscellaneous
  109. Beta1 Recptor Drugs
    • 1) norepinephrine
    • 2) ephedrine (B2)
    • 3) epinephrine (B2)
    • 4) dobutamine
    • 5) dopamine
    • 6) isoproterenol (B2)
  110. Beta2 Receptor Drugs
    • 1) ephedrine (B1)
    • 2) epinephrine (B1)
    • 3) isoproterenol (B1)
    • 4) terbutaline
  111. bachmans bundle
    looks like from the diagram of the cardiac condutive system it is to the right of the SA node
  112. Circulatory System Disorders
    Drugs that affect the heart...
    • 1) exert positive or negative inotropic effect (force of contraction)
    • 2) exert positive or negative chronotropic effect (affecting rate)
    • 2) exert positive or negative dromotropic effect (electrical conduction)
  113. Atiarrythmic agents most work by...
    • 1) sodium blocking
    • 2) potassium blocking
    • 3) beta blocking
    • 4) calcium channel blocking
  114. FDA Pregnancy Categories
    • A) adequate studies in pregnant woman have not demonstrated risk to the fetus in the first trimester or later
    • B) animal studies have not demonstrated risk to the fetus, but there are no adequate studies in pregnant woman
    • C) animal studies have deomonstrated adverse effects, but there are no adequate studies in pregnant women; however, benefits may be acceptable despite potential risk
    • D) fetal risk has been demonstrated. in certain circumstances, benefits could outweigh the risk.
    • E) fetal risk has been demonstrated. this risk outweighs any possible benefit to the mother. avoid using in pregnant or potentially pregnant patients.
  115. pharmacodynamics
    biochemical and physiologic mechanisms of drug action

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