Biology Taxonomy

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VioletPanda
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104102
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Biology Taxonomy
Updated:
2011-09-25 00:44:14
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SAT Biology classification taxonomy
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SAT Biology, classification, taxonomy
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  1. What are the 3 domains?
    Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
  2. Archaea
    • -unicellular
    • -prokaryotic
    • -includes those that live in extreme environments (extremophiles)
    • -Methanogens: energy from producing methane from hydrogen
    • -Halophiles: thrive in salt-concentrated areas
    • -Thermophiles: thrive in high temperatures
  3. What are the four kingdoms of Eurkarya?
    Protista, Fungi, Plants, Animals
  4. Protista
    • -either unicellular, or primitive mulitcellular
    • -heterotrophs (amoeba, paramecium) & autotrophs (euglenas)
    • -movement by many ways (amoeba=pseudopods, paramecium=cilia, euglena=cilia)
    • -those that do not belong in plantae/fungi (ex. seaweed)
    • -some congujate to reproduce
    • -some can cause diseases (dysentary, malaria)
  5. Fungi
    • -heterotrophs
    • -unicellular or multicellular
    • -extracellular digestion; hydrolytic enzymes break down food, nutrients absorbed through diffusion
    • -decomposers (saprobes -- get food from decaying matter)
    • - chitin cell walls
    • -reproduce asexually (budding, spores, fragmentation/regeneration) and sexually
    • -Examples: yeast, mold, mushrooms, & athlete's foot fungus
  6. Plantae
    • -multicellular, nonmotile, autotrophs
    • -cellulose cell walls
    • -photosynthesis
    • -carbs stored as starch
    • -sexual reproductions alternating between gametophyte & sporophyte
    • -some have vascular tissue (tracheophytes) and some don't (bracheophytes)
    • -Examples: mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms
  7. Animalia
    • -heterotrophs, multicellular, motile
    • -most reproduce sexually
    • -usually, small sperm with flagella fertilizes large egg
    • -traditional way to classify animals is embryonic development & anatomical features
    • -35 phyla, main 9 phyla -- porifera, cnidarians, platyhelminthes, nematodes, annelids, mollusks, arthropods, echinoderms, chordates
  8. Porifera
    • -Sponges
    • -No symmetry
    • -sessile (no movement)
    • -filter nutrients from the water drawn into a central cavity
    • -2 layers: ectoderm & endoderm with mesoglea glue in between
    • -specialized cells (no tissues/organs); each cell jas many functions
    • -evolved from colonial (single-celled) organisms; squeezed through a cheese cloth into individual cells, the cells will aggregate
    • -asexual reproduction by fragmentation/regeneration
    • - sexual reproduction by hermaphrodites
  9. Cnidarians
    • -hydra and jellyfish
    • -radial symmetry
    • - ectoderm, endoderm, mesoglea
    • -intracellular digestion -- lysosomes
    • -extracellular digestions -- gastrovascular cavity
    • -stinging cells, cnidocytes
  10. Platyhelminthes
    • -flatworms, tapeworms
    • -bilateral symmetry
    • -ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
    • - ingestion & excretion through one opening
    • -body is so flat that cells can exchange nutrients.wastes through diffusionin environment
  11. Nematodes
    • -roundworms
    • -unsegmented, bilateral
    • -many are parasitic
    • -little sensory apparatus
  12. Annelids
    • -bilateral, little sensory apparatus
    • -digestion -- crop, gizzard, intestine
    • -nephridia for excretion of urea (nitorgen waste)
    • -closed circulatory system (heart with 5 aortic arches)
    • -blood with hemoglobin carrying oxygen
    • -oxygen & CO2 diffused through moist skin
    • -hermaphrodites
  13. Mollusks
    • -squids, octopuses, slugs, clams, snails
    • -soft body, usually protected byhard calcium-containing shell
    • - open circulatory system-- hemocoels & sinuses
    • -bilateral
    • -head-foot with sensory/motor neurons, visceral mass (digetion, excretion, reprod., etc), mantle (secretes shell)
    • -most have gills & nephridia
  14. Athropods
    • -insects, crustacea (shrimp, crab), arachnida (spider)
    • -jointed appendages
    • -head thorax, abdomen
    • -more sensory apparatus
    • -chitin exoskeleton
    • -open circulatory sytem, tubular heart, hemocoels
    • -Malphigian tubules, nitrogenous, uric acid
    • -air ducts balled trahea (air from envir. into hemocoels)
  15. Echinoderms
    • -sea stars, sea urchins
    • -sessile/slow-moving
    • -bilateral symmsetry
    • -water vasc. system creates hydrostatic power for tube feet
    • -sexual reproduction with external fertilization, fragmentation/regeneration, and fragmentation
    • -enoskeleton (usually)
  16. Chordates
    • -fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
    • -notochord (rod thet extends length of body and serves as a flexible axis)
    • -dorsal, hollow nerve cord
    • - tail helps in movement and balance (vestigial in humans)
    • -birds & mammals -- homeotherms (consistent body temp)
    • -reptiles, amphibians, and fish -- endotherms (raise body temp from inside)

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