Parasitology - Trypanosomes

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Parasitology - Trypanosomes
2011-09-25 01:11:13

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  1. Morphologic types of Trypanosomes and description
    • Amastigote - rounded with central flagellum
    • Promastigote - elongated with posterior flagellum
    • Epimastigote - elongated with central flagellum
    • Trypomastigote - elongated with anterior flagellum
  2. Which morphologic type is found in African sleeping sickness?
    Typomastigotes - bloodstream, lymphatics, CSF
  3. Which morphologic types are found in Chagas' disease?
    • Trypomastigotes in bloodstream
    • Amastigotes intracellularly (cardiac muscle)
  4. What trypanosome causes Gambian/West African Sleeping Sickness?
    Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
  5. Gambian African Sleeping Sickness - How do you get it?
    Bite from infected tsetse fly
  6. Winterbottom's sign
    • Enlargement of the posterior cervical lymph nodes
    • Seen in Gambian African Sleeping Sickness
  7. Kerandel's sign
    • Severe pain following any pressure on palms of the hands or over ulnar nerve
    • Seen in Gambian African Sleeping Sickness
  8. Gambian Trypanosomiasis - Presentation?
    • Ulceration at bite site (trypanosomal chancre)
    • Febrile attacks
    • Winterbottom's sign
    • Increasing apathy, fatigue
    • Kerandel's sign
    • Progressive meningoencephalitis
    • Coma
  9. Gambian Trypanosomiasis - Diagnosis?
    ID of trypanosomes in blood, lymph, or CSF
  10. How are trypanosomes able to evade host defenses?
    Constantly changing surface antigens
  11. Where do tsetse flies live?
    Banks of shaded streams
  12. Gambian Trypanosomiasis - Treatment?
    Pentamidine and Melarsoprol
  13. What causes Trypanosomiasis in Eastern and Central Africa?
    Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense
  14. Rhodesian Trypanosomiasis - Presentation?
    • More rapidly progressive (frequently die before menigoencephalitic signs)
    • Rigor and fever
    • Rapid weight loss
    • Early CNS involvement
    • Little to no lymphadenopathy
  15. Rhodesian Trypanosomiasis - Differences?
    • More virulent
    • Number of animal resevoirs
    • Tsetses breed in lightly covered bush areas
    • Untreated patients die within 1 year
  16. What causes Chagas' disease?
    Trypanosoma cruzi
  17. American trypanosomiasis
    Chagas' disease
  18. American trypanosomiasis - How do you get it?
    Reduviid bug bites get contaminated with its own feces, which contains the trypanosomes
  19. American trypanosomiasis - Presentation?
    • Erythematous indurated area at site of infection (Chagoma)
    • Regional lymphadenopathy
    • Romana's sign
    • Malaise, chills, fever, myalgias
    • Hepatospenomegaly, anasarca
    • Megacolon, megaesophagus
    • Meningoencephalitis
    • Chagastic cardiopathy
  20. Romana's Sign
    Unilateral edema of both the upper and lower eyelid and conjunctivitis
  21. American trypanosomiasis - Diagnosis?
    • Blood smear
    • Xenodiagnosis (testing reduviid bugs that have fed only on patient)
  22. American trypanosomiasis - Treatment?
    Nitrofurfurylidine derivative nifurtimox (Lampit aka Bayer 2502)
  23. T. Cruzi
  24. T. brucei (rhodesiense or gambiense)