Parasitology - Trematodes

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Author:
zf2010
ID:
104144
Filename:
Parasitology - Trematodes
Updated:
2011-09-25 11:24:16
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Trematodes
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Trematodes
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  1. What are trematodes?
    • Platyhelminthes - hermaphroditic parasites of vertebrates
    • aka Flukes
  2. What intermediate host do trematodes require?
    A mollusk (snail or clam)
  3. Fasciolopsis buski - Where?
    India, China, SE Asia
  4. Fasciolopsis buski - How do you get it?
    Ingestion of metacercariae on vegetation contaminated by infected mollusk
  5. Fasciolopsis buski - Life cycle?
    • Eggs passed in feces
    • Matures to miracidium - infects mollusk
    • Leaves mollusk as Cercaria
    • Metacercariae ingested
  6. Fasciolopsis buski - Presentation?
    • Attachment of large worms to bowel mucosa
    • Inflammation, ulceration
    • Diarrhea, malabsorption
    • Pernicious anemia (B12 def.)
  7. Fasciolopsis buski - Diagnosis?
    O&P in stool

  8. Fasciolopsis buski - Treatment?
    Praziquantel (Biltricide) - a platyhelminthicide
  9. Clonorchis sinensis - Where?
    East Asia
  10. Clonorchis sinensis - How do you get it?
    Ingestion of metacercaria (usually in infected fresh water fish)
  11. Clonorchis sinensis - Presentation?
    • Worms live in bile ducts
    • Usually asymptomatic
    • Fever, diarrhea, pain, anorexia, hepatomegaly, jaundice
    • Biliary obstruction
  12. Clonorchis sinensis - Diagnosis?
    • O&P in feces
  13. Clonorchis sinensis - Treatment?
    Praziquantel or albendazole
  14. Opisthorchis felineus - Where?
    Central and Eastern Europe, Siberia
  15. Opisthorchis felineus - Describe
    • Very similar to clonorchis sinensis
    • From consumption of uncooked fresh water fish
    • Also inhabits the bile ducts
  16. Opisthorchis felineus - Treatment?
    Praziquantel
  17. Opisthorchis viverrini - Where?
    Thailand, Laos
  18. Opisthorchis viverrini - How do you get it?
    Consumption of uncooked fresh water fish
  19. Opisthorchis viverrini
    • Another liver platyhelminth
    • Inhabit bile ducts
  20. Opisthorchis viverrini - Treatment?
    Praziquantel
  21. Fasciola hepatica - Where?
    South America
  22. Fasciola hepatica - How do you get it?
    Ingestion of encysted metacercariae on aquatic vegetation
  23. Fasciola hepatica - Presentation?
    • Worms in gallbladder and bile ducts
    • May be found ectopically
    • Fever, chills, RUQ pain
    • Hepatomegaly
  24. Fasciola hepatica - Diagnosis?
    • O&P of stool
  25. Fasciola hepatica - Treatment?
    Bithionol
  26. Paragonimus spp.
    • Lung fluke
    • Usually P. westermani
  27. Paragonimus spp. - Where?
    East Asia, Africa, Americas
  28. Paragonimus spp. - How do you get it?
    Ingestion of raw crayfish or fresh water crabs with encysted metacercaria
  29. Paragonimus spp. - Presentation?
    • Metacercariae excyst in the small intestine, penetrate to lungs
    • Inflammatory reaction, cough, bloody sputum
    • Dangerous if becomes cerebral paragonimiasis
  30. Paragonimus spp. - Diagnosis?
    ID of dark golden-brown eggs in sputum or feces
  31. Paragonimus spp. - Treatment?
    Praziquantel or bithionol

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