What includes that we need in large amounts such as carbs, proteins, fats, and sometimes water?
What are sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus often considered to be?
Which nutrients do we need in small amounts, such as vitamins and minerals? Such as iron, iodine, zinc, manganese, cobalt and a few others.
micronutrients/microminerals or trace elements
What occurs when nutrient molecules enter cells and undergo many chemical changes?
What are two major metabolic processes?
catabolism & anabolism
What breaks food molecules down into smaller molecular compounds and, in doing so, releases energy from them, which is decomposition process?
What type of carbohydrate is most useful to the typical human cell?
When gglucose reacts with ATP, what does it form?
What prepares glucose for further metabolic functions?
Where is glucose phosphorylation reversible?
intestinal mucosa, liver, and renal cortex (these cells contain phosphate, an enzyme that splits phosphate off from glucose-6-phosphate)
This is the process of carbohydrate catabolism, breaks apart one glucose molecule to form two pyruvic acid molecules?
Where does glycolysis occurs? What is the process of glycolysis?
occurs in the cytoplasm
it's an anaerobic process
Before each pyruvic acid molecule can proceed into the citric acid cycle, what must it be converted into?
acetyl group (acetate)
Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of cells, whereas the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) occurs where?
High-energy electrons removed during the citric acid cycle enter a chain of carrier molecules, which is embedded in the inner membrane of mitochondria and is known as?
electron transport system
What is referred as an oxygen-requiring joining of a phosphate group to ADP to form ATP?
This process produces some 90% of the ATP formed during carbohydrate catabolism, which is the crucial part of catabolism?
What pathway is the only ATP-producing procss that can operate under anaerobic conditions?
What pathway transfers energy to ATP using only glycolysis, a process that does not require oxygen?
When pyruvic acid molecule produced by glycolysis cannot enter through the citric acid cycle, what is it coverted to?
What is the process of glycogen formation which is a series of chemical reactions in which glucose molecules are joined together to form a structure made of a branched strand of stored glucose.
These molecules do not remain in the cell permanently but are eventually broken apart; process of splitting glycogen is called?
This means the formation of "new" glucose in the sense that it is made from proteins or, less frequently, from the glycerol of fats, not form carbohydrates. Process occurs chiefly in the liver.
What decreases blood glucose level by moving glucose molecules out of the blood and into the cells?
If insulin tends to decrease the blood glucose level, glucagon tends to do what?
increase blood glucose level
What two hormones increase blood glucose concentration?
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and glucocorticoids
What hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex to increase its secretion of glucocorticoids?
What accelerates gluconeogenesis?
What are the most common lipids?
What are triglycerides composed of?
glycerol and three fatty acids
What are the characterisitics of saturated fats?
solid at room temperature
no double bonds; all available bondns of its hydrocarbon chain are filled w/hydrogen atoms
What are the characterisitics of unsaturated fats?
some double bonds; not all sites for hydrogen are filled
liquid at room temperature
What is transported in blood as chylomicrons, lipoproteins, and free fatty acids?
What is produced mainly in the liver, and consists of lipids (triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids) and protein?
When triglycerides are first hydrolyzed, glycerol is then converted to what when it enters the glycolysis pathway?
What consists of synthesis of various types of lipids, notably triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids and prostaglandins?
lipogenesis (lipid anabolism)
What hormones are mainly controlled by lipid metabolism?/
In protein metabolism, what is considered primary and secondary?
anabolism is primary
catabolism is secondary
What is the process by which proteins are synthesized by the ribosomes of all cells and constitutes the major process of growth, reproduction, tissue repair, and replacement of cells destroyed by wear and tear?
What hormone tends to accelerate processes and is therefore classified as protein catabolic hormones?
What are organic molecules needed in small quantities for normal metabolism throughout the body?
These "molecule carriers" are organic, nonprotein catalysts that are useless without the appropriate vitamins to attach to them and this give them the shape that allows them to function properly.
Vitamin D can be converted to what type of hormone, which plays a role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis in the body?
What vitamin cannot be made by the body itself?
Because the body cannot store significant amounts of water-soluble vitamins, what vitamins must be continually supplied in the diet?
B vitamins and vitamin C
What type of mineral aids in stomach acid production and acid-base balance?
What type of mineral helps blood clotting, bone formation, and nerve and muscle function?
What type of mineral is involved in extracting energy from the citric acid cycle and in blood production?
What type of mineral is required for thyroid hormone synthesis?
What type of mineral helps muscle and nerve function?
What type of mineral aids in muscle and nerve function and fluid balance?
Define metabolic rate.
amount of energy released in the body in a given time by catabolism
What is the body's rate of energy expenditure under "basal conditions?"
basal metabolic rate (bmr)
What are the factors that influence basal metabolic rate?
other factors: emotions, pregnancy, and lactation
What is the amount of energy used or expended by the body in a given time?
total metabolic rate
What are the factors that determine the total metabolic rate?
energy used to do work to maintain life, 55%-60%
energy used to do skeletal muscle work
thermic effect of foods (proteins have a much higher thermic effect about 30%)
What part of the brain function as the appetite center and the satiety center, meaning that impulses from them bring about increased appetite and a decrease appetite, respectively?
What is called an "appetite-producing" effect?
What is called a "producing an appetite loss" effect?