Parasitology - Cestodes

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Author:
zf2010
ID:
104185
Filename:
Parasitology - Cestodes
Updated:
2011-09-25 15:28:13
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Cestodes
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Cestodes
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  1. What is the common name for cestodes?
    Tapeworms - a platyhelminth
  2. Parts of the cestode body
    • Scolex - anterior attachment organ
    • Proglottids/strobila - segments
    • Terminal portion of mature strobila filled with eggs
  3. Diphyllobothrium latum - Where?
    Worldwide
  4. Diphyllobothrium latum - Life Cycle?
    • Embryo from egg eaten by Copepod
    • Matures to Procercoid larva
    • Copepod eaten by Fish
    • Procercoid larva --> Plerocercoid
    • Ingested plerocercoid develops into adult in human
  5. Diphyllobothrium latum - Presentation?
    • Usually asymptomatic
    • Nonspecific abdominal symptoms
    • Pernicious anemia (Vit B12 def.)
  6. Diphyllobothrium latum - Diagnosis?
    • Eggs in stool
  7. Diphyllobothrium latum - Treatment?
    • Praziquantel
    • Saline purge
  8. Taenia solium
    • Pork tapeworm
  9. Taenia solium - Where?
    S. America, Spain, Africa, S. Asia
  10. Taenia solium - Life Cycle?
    • Egg ingested by Pig or Human
    • Develops into cysticercus in muscle
    • Ingested pork infected with cysticercus develops into adult worm
  11. Taenia solium - Presentation?
    • Usually asymptomatic
    • Nonspecific abdominal discomfort, hunger, indigestion
  12. Taenia solium - Diagnosis?
    • Eggs and proglottids in feces
  13. Taenia solium - Treatment?
    Praziquantel
  14. Cysticercosis
    • Infection with larval stage of Taenia worms (cysticerci)
    • Often infects skeletal muscle, brain
    • See subcutaneous nodules
    • Treated with albendozole, praziquantel
  15. Taenia saginata
    • Beef tapeworm
  16. Taenia saginata - Life cycle?
    • Similar to T. solium
    • Cattle are intermediate host
    • No cysticercosis
  17. Taenia saginata - Diagnosis?
    Uterine side branches range from 15 to 20 (solium 7-13)
  18. Taenia saginata - Treatment?
    Praziquantel
  19. Hymenolepis dimunuta - Where?
    Worldwide
  20. Hymenolepis dimunuta - How do you get it?
    • Ingestion of infected insects
    • Larvae grow into adults in small intestine
  21. Hymenolepis dimunuta - Presentation?
    • Usually asymptomatic
    • Mild gastrointestinal complaints
  22. Hymenolepis dimunuta - Diagnosis?
    • Eggs in stool
  23. Echinococcus granulosus - Where?
    Worldwide
  24. Echinococcus granulosus - Life Cycle?
    • Humans are intermediate host for larval stage
    • Canine is definitive host for adult worms
    • Embryo ingested, bores through intestinal wall
    • Lodges in any organ, usually liver or lung
    • Embryo grows into massive hydatid cyst
  25. Echinococcus multilocularis - Where?
    Found in subartic regions and India
  26. Echinococcus multilocularis - Life cycle?
    • Foxes are primary definitive hosts
    • Humans are intermediate host for larval stage
    • Embro ingested - grows to hydatid cyst
    • Cyst can metastasize
  27. Echinococcosis - Diagnosis
    • Radiographic examination
    • Aspiration of hydatid cyst
    • Antigen testing
  28. Echinococcosis - Presenation?
    • Usually only noticed once large size gains attention
    • Can produce cough, liver problems
    • Expanding cyst causes pressure necrosis
    • If cyst ruptures --> anaphylactic shock
  29. Echinococcosis - Treatment?
    • Albendazole
    • Surgical removal
    • PAIR - Percutaneous Aspiration, Injection of scolicide, Reaspiration

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