micro anatomy mini 1b

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  1. 4 types of tissues
    epithelium, connective, muscle and nervous
  2. basement membrane parts
    basal lamina and reticular lamina
  3. lamina lucida
    • -located b/t the basal side of the cell and the lamina densa
    • -made mostly of glycoproteins(laminin and entactin) as well as transmembrane proteins(integrins and dystroglycans)
  4. lamina densa
    composition and function
    • -b/t lamina lucida and reticular lamina
    • -Collagen 4, coated with proteoglycans(perlacean, which has lots of HepSO4, a GAG)
    • -Coll 4= filter
    • -HepSO4= negative charges restricts neg charged molecules
  5. lamina reticularis
    • -Collagen 3 (reticular fibers)
    • -part of the basement membrane made by FIBROBLASTS, which make fibronectin
  6. anchoring fibrils
    • -Collagen 7
    • -attach basal lamina to the lamina retiularis
    • made by FIBROBLAST
  7. microfibrils
    • -attach basal lamina to elastic fibers
    • made by FIBROBLAST
  8. laminin
    • -part of the lamina lucida
    • -has binding sites for Coll 4, HepSO4 and integrins (of epithelial cells and anchor PM of cell to the basal lamina
  9. Duchennes muscular dystophy
    • absense of dystrophin leading to muscular weakness
    • -dystrophin binds EC laminin and IC actin filaments
    • - MALES ONLY (located on X chr)
  10. dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa
    • -mutation of Coll 7 gene
    • -causes defective anchorig fibrils
    • -presents as erosion in flexural creases, subepdermal blistering at lamina lucida level
    • -in scarring types, blisters are beneath lamina densa
  11. Pseudostatified columnar epithelia
    • trachea- ciliated PCE with goblet cells
    • epididymis- PCE with stereocilia
  12. stereocilia
    • -long microvilli
    • - increase absoption by increasing surface area
  13. Kartageners syndrome
    • -'immotile cilia syndrome'
    • -absent dynein arms in cilia, resulting in immotile cilia which causes respiratory problems and male infetility
  14. nexin
    an elastic protein that connects adjacent MT doublets in cilia
  15. radial spokes
    connect subunit A (of a preipheral doublet) to the central sheath in a cilia
  16. terminal bars
    • -where epithelial cells are held together at their apical ends
    • -composed of 3 groups: Occluding (impermaeble), Anchoring (adhering) and communicating
  17. Occluding junctions
    • (1)zonula occludens/tight junctions
    • -made up of TMP OCCLUDINS and CLAUDINS which are attched to actin filaments via ZO-1 (ZONULA CYTOPLASMIC PROTEINS)
  18. anchoring junctions
    (2)zonula adherens, (3)macula adherens (desmosome)
  19. communicating junctions
    gap junction- direct cell to cell communications
  20. cytomegalovirus and cholera toxins
    act on occluding junctions resulting in permeable junctions
  21. C. perfringes
    attacks zonula occludens in GIT causing massinve fluid movement into the lumen
  22. H. pylori
    targets ZO-1 and JAM of zonula occludens in the stomach, giving gastric ulcers
  23. Cholera toxin
    • attacks ZO-1 and ZO-2 of zonula occludens
    • -also permanently activates Gs in cell, leading to increase cAMP, which leads to diarrhea
  24. Dust mite
    inhaled fecal pellats cause zonula occluden junction breakdown in the respiratory epithelim exposing lungs to allergans
  25. zonula adherens
    • -continuous adhesive band that encirlce and hold cells together with a space of 15-20nm between calls
    • -tmp E-CADHERINS bind with e/o on EC side, held together be a Ca++
    • -IC- CATENIN, VINCULIN and ALPHA-ACTININ bind them to terminal web and actinin
  26. desomosome
    • -localized sheer resistant 'spot welds'
    • - IC disc- made of DESMOPLAKINS and PAKOGLOBINS which anchor to IF of cytokeratin
    • -EC interlocking fingers made of Ca++ dependent DESMOCOLLINS and DESOMGLEINS, with a large space b/t cells= 30 nm
    • - located in simple spithelia and stratified squamous
  27. pemphigus vulgaris
    autoIg produced against desomsoma; proteins resulting in blistering
  28. gap junctions
    • -epithelia, CM and SM and neurons
    • - 6 transmembrane 'connexins'= 1 connexon, that has a 2nm channel
    • -open (dec pH or inc [Ca++]ic)
    • -adjacent cells are only 2 nm apart
  29. focal adhesion
    anchor actin filaments of cytoskeleton to the basement membrane
  30. hemidesomosomes
    anchor IF to basement membrane
  31. intergrins
    transmembrane proteins of the basal membrane
  32. DICT
    • mostly Coll 1
    • fibers arranged in multiple directions
    • few cells and little ground substance
  33. DRCT
    • Coll 1 in parrallel bundles
    • form ligaments etc
  34. aponeuroses
    • broad flat tendons with mulitple layes aranged at 90 degrees to adjacent layer
    • ** this arrangement is also found in the cornea**
  35. fibrils
    • composed of tropocollagen molecules(3 alpha helix to form a triple helix) and make up fibers
    • -stain with osmium and exhibit a transverse banding pattern
  36. collagen types
    • 1- LCT and DCT, bone and dentine
    • 2- hyaline and elastic cartilage (only form fibers)
    • 3- reticular fibers (only forms fibers and fibrils)
    • 4- basal lamina (densa) ONLY, (PRODUCED BY EPITHELIAL CELLS), keeps registration peptides
  37. AA in collagen and their percentages
    • gly-34
    • pro-12
    • hyp-10
    • characteristic aa are hyp and hyl
  38. registration peptides
    on ends of procollagen that are essential for triple helix formation and keep the protein SOLUBLE inside the cell
  39. tropocollagen
    • procollagen - reg. peptides = tropocollagen (insol)
    • lys and hyl are cross-linked in adjacent tropocollagens
  40. reticular fibers
    c type
    cell types
    • -Coll 3, supportive meshwork
    • -produced by fibroblast, reticular cells and muscle cells(in vessels)
    • -placed first in wound healing then replaced by Coll 1
    • - PAS stains black b/c Ag loving
  41. epithelial reticular cells in IS
    • Thymus has no reticular fibers
    • -have cytoplasmic extensions that make up supportive structure (octopus)
  42. Ehlers-Danlos type 4
    defeciency in Coll 3 causing ruptures in arteries and LI, also characteristic stretchy skin
  43. elasatic fibers
    • -elastin core in a sheath of fibrillin microfilaments
    • -elastin (gly and hyp rich, hyp poor, hyl absent) NOT COLLAGEN
    • fibrillin- organizing center (glycoprotein), sensitive to UV radiation
  44. elastogenesis
    absense of microfibrils during this process results in formation of elastin sheets (lamellae) as seen in the aorta
  45. desmosime and isodesmosime
    hold together elastic chains by cross linking lys residues, makeing it 5 x more extensible than rubber
  46. Marfan syndrome
    mutation of fibrillin gene, a CT disorder, can cause arterial rupture due to only elastic sheet production and no fibrillin to hold
  47. ground substance
    • composed of GAGs, proteoglycans and multiadhesive glycoproteins
    • -act as microorganism barrier
    • -permits diffusion
  48. HLA
    • -NO SO4
    • -forms long chains that many proteoglycans will bind (noncovalently), which will attract Na+ and H2O
  49. GAGs
    • -long straight polysaccharides of reapeating dissach.
    • - amino sugar, uronic acid sugar (which has carboxyl)
    • - high neg charge, which cause staining with basic dyes
    • - high neg charge attracts Na+ and H2O= gel
  50. 7 types of GAGs
    • **All SO4ed GAGs link to a proteoglycan core**
    • HLA
    • Chondroitin 4-SO4
    • Chondroitin 6-SO4
    • Dermatan SO4
    • Keraten SO4
    • Heparan SO4
    • Heparin
  51. syndecan
    proteoglycan that links cells to EC matrix molecules
  52. proteoglycans
    • present in all ground substance and on the surface of many cell types
    • - can act as binding sites for GF and other signalling molecules
  53. aggrecan
    • proteoglycan with >200 GAGs, chondroitin SO4 and keratan SO4
    • -**abundant in GS of cartilage and absorb lots of H2) giving it good resistance to compression**
  54. Decorin
    proteoglycan with only a single GAG
  55. syndecan
    a transmembrane proteoglycan
  56. multiadhesive glycoporteins
    stabalize ECM by binding cell surface, collagen, proteoglycans and GAGs
  57. fibronectin
    main molecule in CT (dimer)
  58. hyaluronidase
    • secreted by S. aureus
    • chops HLA in smaller pieces making it soluble and breaking down the ground substance, aiding rapid spread
  59. fixed CT cells
    fibroblasts, macrophage, mast and adipose cells
  60. myofibroblast
    • feature of fibroblasts and SM cells
    • found in wound healing (wound contraction) and the preiodontal ligament
  61. plasma cell
    • b cell derived
    • -'clock face arrangement' due to alternating patches of hetero- and euchromatin
    • -life span of 20-30 days
  62. Ca++ dependent binding
    • -E-cadherins in the Zonula adherans
    • -TMP that bind plaques to desmoplakins and apkoglobins of the desmosome (macula adherans)
  63. transport systems in the neuron
    anterograde(via kinesin): fast- synaptic vesicles, med- mtch, slow- proteins and actin

    retrograde(vi dynesin)- fast- anything that needs to be degraded
  64. GFAP
    • glial fibrillar acidic protein
    • -unique to astrocytes (the largest of the glial cells)
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micro anatomy mini 1b
2011-12-09 16:20:17
micro mini

micro mini 1b
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