Human Diversity

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nbennett
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104205
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Human Diversity
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2011-11-12 11:42:02
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Unit Two
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  1. Who are considered to be "White Ethnic" Americans?
    • Irish
    • Italian
    • Jewish
  2. Irish Immigration (1700)
    Mass immigration when Britain took over (discrimination due to religion)
  3. Irish Immigration (1845-1848)
    Potato famine (Starvation and persecution-- economically and religiously)
  4. Fear of Irish Immigrants
    • Willing to work for low wages (took undesirable jobs)
    • Stereotyped as immoral, untelligent, hot tempered, drunks, fighters, corrupt in business deals (didn't make getting jobs easy)
  5. Irish Political Involvement
    • Means of upward mobility
    • Reinforced that they were corrupt
    • Helped them get ahead
  6. Italian Immigration (1860-1920)
    Approx. 4 million immigrants mainly from Southern Italy
  7. Fear of Italian Immigrants
    • Competing with Irish immigrants
    • Willing to work for low wages
    • Stereotyped as unintelligent, trouble makers, emotional, jealous, mafia involved.
  8. Conflict between the Irish and Italian Immigrants
    • In competition for:
    • -same low wage jobs
    • -same limited housing options
    • (both had big families)
    • -same educational opportunities for kids
  9. Immigration Act of 1924
    • Set low quotas for certain immigrants groups (mainly Italian and Irish)
    • (based on people who were already in the U.S.)
    • Slowing down of immigrants
  10. Union Movement
    • Means to upward mobility for Italian Immigrants
    • Reinforced mafia stereotype
    • Had more job opportunities, better opportunities for their kids
  11. Jewish Immigration (1640s)
    Spain and Portugal (left because of religious persecution)
  12. Jewish Immigration (1840s)
    Germany (religious persecution)
  13. Jewish Immigration (1880s-1920s)
    Came from Eastern Europe
  14. Jewish Immigration (1920-to today)
    • All over Europe
    • Prompted by rise of Hitler
    • Largest Jewish population of Jewish people (over 1/2 the population in the U.S.)
  15. Fear of Jewish Immigration
    • Due to education and work experience they did not come seeking low wage jobs
    • Stereotyped as cheap, materialistic, unfair negotiators
  16. Political Involvement (Jewish Immigrants)
    • Means for upward mobility
    • Understood the political system
    • Had more to say
  17. Current Issues for White Ethnic Groups:
    • Prejudice and discrimination today mainly due to religious beliefs
    • Ethnic enclaves in larger cities
    • Ethnic distinction
    • Persistent stereotypes
    • Catholic Church issues
  18. "African Americans"
    Conditions of Slavery:
    • For life
    • Inherited
    • Could not own or inherit property
    • Considered to be property
    • No rights
  19. Emancipation Proclamation
    • January 1, 1863
    • President Lincoln "freed" the slaves in the South (before the war officially ended)
  20. June 19, 1865
    Documented date when slaves in southern most areas learned of the emancipation proclamation
  21. 13th Amendment (1866)
    Officially abolished slavery in the U.S.
  22. 14th Amendment (1868)
    Gave citizenship to those born in or naturalized to the U.S.
  23. 15th Amendment (1870)
    Prohibited the denial or voting rights for men on the grounds of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
  24. "Jim Crow Laws"
    • Series of laws put in place to disenfrachize the freed slaves and other minority groups
    • -in place all throughout the U.S., but concentrated mainly in the south.
  25. Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896)
    • Legalized "separate" but equal accomondations (schools, restrooms, etc.)
    • Orginally had to do with railrood cars
  26. **Brown vs. the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
    • Formal challenge to Plessy ruling in area of education ruled that separate but equal had no place in education
    • -13 families involved
    • -led to overturning other areas of segregations
  27. Reactions to "Brown vs. Board"
    • Riots, protests, and school boycotts
    • Didn't want integration:
    • Gov. Faubus in Arkansas (Central High)
    • Gov. Wallace in Alabama (U of A)
    • Ruby Bridges in Louisiana
  28. Rosa Parks in Montgomery Alabama (1955)
    • Arrested for not giving up her seat on a bus
    • City wide boycott of bus system lead by Martin Luther King, Jr.
    • City desegregated bus system
  29. **Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
    • Founded by MLK, Jr.
    • Organized marches, protests, events, and spread information
  30. **Civil Rights Act of 1964
    • Outlawed Jim Crow practices, discrimination, and segregation of public facilities.
    • Only document time that MLK, Jr. and Malcom X were at the same place.
  31. "Black Power" and the Black Panthers
    • 1960s:
    • Vigilante group focused on overturning power structure, "black power" was the groups mantra.
    • -no longer a vigilante group
  32. Black Nationalism
    • 1960s:
    • Focus on embracing African culture and cultural pride linked to Nation of Islam (a Muslim faith)
    • Dislikes of Jewish People: Lewis Farcon (leader, million man march) and Kranga (leader, invented Kwanza celebration 7 days.)
  33. Current Issues for African Americans
    • De Facto Segregation- Based on location and geographically
    • Low Academic Completion- African Americans (17% not completig HS)
    • Poverty (low pay, feminization)- most relevant, umbrella issues. High percent of female headed households
    • Loan Discrimination- Balloon loans, home ownership is a key in finanical stability
    • Incarceration Rates- Higher than any other group
    • Identifiability- people being identified for traits, ski color, poveryt, etc
  34. Native Americans U.S. Policy of Separation
    Tribes treated as separate nations (treaties and negotiations handled through secretary of war)
  35. **Indian Removal Act (1830)
    • Relocated Easter tribes to the west of the Mississippi, "Trail of Tears"
    • Approx. 5,000 died in the movement, most died of starvation or exposure (could have been prevented)
  36. U.S. Policy of Assimiliation
    Shift in policy by 1880's to assimilate tribes into the general U.S. population
  37. **General Allotment Act (also known as the Dawes Act) 1887
    • No systems of training for the individuals
    • Goal to encourage assimilation
    • Used blood quantum as qaulifier (still used)
    • Given land and 25 years to make it productive (farming, cattle, etc) or it would be reclaimed.
  38. Indian Citizenship Act (1924)
    • Gave citizenship to individuals born within territorial limits of the U.S.
    • -tribal and U.S. citizenship
    • -only tribal citizenship
    • -no tribal, only U.S. citizenship
  39. Indian Claims Commission Act (1946)
    Established to hear disputes with Dawes Act; no power to act on complaints
  40. Termination Act (1953)
    Phasing out of Bureau of Indian Affiars services intended to give independenc to tribes.
  41. **American Indian Movement (AIM) 1968
    • Nationalist movement (increase in cultural pride)
    • Used confrontation and media attention to resolve issues
    • - Fish ins (people would fish, where they were not allowed to fish)
    • -Alcatraz Island (seized and held for 18 months)
    • -Wounded Knew II (Took over the Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota for 70 days. Got the federal government to apologize for the events of the first Wounded Knee)
  42. Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (1975)
    Tribal control over educational opportunities established tribally run college to prevent "brain drain" (the best and brightest leave to continue their education but never come back).
  43. Current Issues for Native Americans
    • Lower life expectancy rates
    • Most likely to be a victim of crime
    • High suicide rate (2 x's of national average)
    • High addiction rate
    • Low academic completion rate (poverty and isolation)
    • Casinos
    • Mascots (sports)
    • Identifiability
  44. Latino Americans: Terminology and groups "lumped" under term Latino
    Anyone spanish speaking soon to be our largest sub-population in the U.S.
  45. **Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
    • Resolution of Mexican-American War.
    • U.S. paid $15 million to annex TX, NM, AZ, and most of CA (protection given to Nationals there)
  46. Immigration Policies (Border restrictions were not in place officially until 1965):
    • -Repatriation (1929-1935)
    • -Los Braceros Program (1942-1964)
    • -Operation Wetback (1954-1959)
  47. Repatriation (1929-1935)
    • Mainly about the time of the great depression
    • Migrant labor wasn't successful during them (goverment send workers back to Mexico without checking their paperwork; based on looks)
  48. Los Braceros Programs (1929-1964)
    • Also had to do with migrant labor
    • Mexicans would come to work in the U.S. and then went back to Mexico.
    • Were not guaranteed minimum wage, no way to get citizenship
    • U.S. and Mexican government worked together
  49. Operation Wetback (1954-1959)
    • Similar to Repatriation
    • Sent people back to Mexico, without checking documentations
    • If you looked to be illegal, you were sent back
  50. Puerto Ricans (1898)
    • U.S. annexed Puerto Rico due to its strategic location.
    • Puerto Rico is a common wealth for the U.S.
  51. Jones Act (1917)
    Unrestricted access between island (Puerto Rico) and mainland (U.S.)
  52. Puerto Rico Commonwealth (1952)
    Have full citizenship rights except no representation in Congress (therefore no voting and no federal taxes)
  53. Immigration of Individuals from Cuba waves of immigration beginning 1959-1962
    The Revolution, Castro came into power, Cuba turned communists. Missile conflict. 200,000 people left and came to the U.S. Mostly the wealthy
  54. Immigration of Individuals from Cuba waves of immigration 1965-1973:
    Working class people, 300,000 people left Cuba
  55. Immigration of Individuals from Cuba waves of immigration 1980's ("Freedom Flotilla")
    President Carter welcomed people from Cuba, to escape the communism .
  56. Mariel Boatlift ("Marielitos")
    Castro put drug addicts, criminals, mental health patients, the homeless, the people on the bottom of society and sent them to the U.S.
  57. Current Issues for Latino Americans
    • Language barriers
    • Low academic completion rate
    • High rate of poverty
    • Access to healthcare limited
    • Increase in political involvement (signs in Spanish)
    • Issues with immigration policies (illegally)
    • Identifiability
  58. Asian and Pacific Island Americans: Groups "lumped" under the term Asian and Pacific Island Americans:
    • Approx. 59 separate groups
    • 40% are Chinese and Filipino
    • 60% mainly Japanese, Asian Indian, and Korean
  59. Chinese (1848)
    • Came to California
    • First documented immigrants from China started the flow of immigration into U.S. for labor work.
  60. California Immigration Tax (1855)
    "Head tax" of $55 per immigrant in addition to required fees for immigration to the U.S.
  61. California Outlawing Chinese Immigration (1858)
    • Attempt to limit individuals coming into the State.
    • 1850's time of the gold rush
  62. Transcontinental Railroad (1869)
    Labor for western portion of railroad excluded from ceremony for completion. Chinese laborers provided alot of resources for the western portion.
  63. Supreme Court Ruling (1876)
    • Overturned the "head tax" as unconstitutional
    • California can't have "head tax" or their own policy on immigration
    • No states can have their own policy on immigration
  64. Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
    Congress suspended Chinese immigration to the U.S. for a period of 10 years (no citizenship for those here)
  65. Amendment to Chinese Exlusion Act (1888)
    • Exemption given for merchants, students, teachers, government officials
    • Extended until its repeal in 1943
  66. "Gentleman's Agreement" with Japan (1907)
    No passports issued to labor workers on their family members to come to the U.S.
  67. Alien Land Act (1913)
    • California
    • Prohibited anyone not eligible for citizenships from owning property (Chinese, Japanese, Native Americans...)
    • Declared unconstitutional in 1948 Supreme Court ruling
    • -had to be a citizen to take it to the Supreme Court
  68. December 7, 1941
    • "Day that will live in infamy"
    • Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, HI
    • Belief Japanese Americans helped to plan the attack
    • -no evidence to support that assumption
  69. Executive Order 9066 (Feb. 19, 1942)
    • Authorized "military zones" and "relocation camps"
    • Approx. 110,000 relocated (1/8 Japanese)
    • Forced sell of property unless in trustee care
    • Moved people who were considered threats
  70. Korean American Immigration (1903-1905)
    • Arrived initially in HI, then on to CA- experienced low wages and poor conditions
    • Korea banned immigration to U.S. until post Korean War (1950's)
  71. Kye
    System of rotating loans within the Korean American communities (low interest rate, high support)
  72. Tension Between Korean American and other minority communities
    • Access to resources, job opportunities and businesses loaction often in close proximity
    • 1922 riots in Los Angeles approx. 2,000 Korean owned businesses damaged
  73. Filipino Immigration
    Unrestricted until 1934 (Islands were a U.S. territory until that point)
  74. Philippines Independene Act
    Granted deferred independence and an annual quota of 50 immigrants per year was set until the late 50s.
  75. Current Issues for Asian Americans:
    • Language barriers
    • Cultural barriers (different customs, food, etc)
    • Access to healthcare limited (ability to buy insurance)
    • High academic completion rate
    • High median income
    • "Model" minority (economically stabilized themselves as a sub-minority)
  76. Who are Arab Americans
    • Anyone who speaks Arabic based language, practices Islam or identifies with Arab traditions
    • Over 1/2 do not practice Islam faith (U.S.)
    • **66% are some form of Christian (U.S.)
  77. Naturalization Act of 1790
    Limited citizenship to "free white persons" early Arab immigrants did not qualify.
  78. Sojourner Orientation in 19th Century
    Make money in the U.S. then return to country of origin (served in Middle Man positions)
  79. **Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996
    Increased government authority to detain and interrogate individuals suspected of links to terrorism suspended civil rights in process.
  80. Alien Land Act (1913)
    • California
    • Prohibited anyone not eligible for citizenship from owning property (Chinese, Japanese, Native Americans)
    • Delcared unconstitutional in 1948; Supreme Court Ruling
  81. **December 7, 1941
    • "Day that will inve in infamy"
    • Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, HI
    • Belief Japanese Americans helped to plan the attack (no evidence to support)
  82. **Executive Order 9066 (February 19, 1942)
    • Presiden Roosevelt
    • Authorized "military zones" and "relocation camps"
    • Approx. 110,000 relocated (1/8 Japanese)
    • Forced sell of property unless in trustee care
    • Moved people who were considered threats
  83. Korean American Immigration (1903-1905)
    • Arrived initially in HI, then on to CA- experienced low wages and poor conditions
    • Korea banned immigration to U.S. until post Korean War (1950s)
  84. Kye
    System of rotating loans within the Korean American communities (low interest rate, high support)
  85. Tension between Korean American and other Minority Communities
    • (Specifically African Americans)
    • Access to resources, job opportunities and businesses location often in close proximity 1992 riots in Los Angeles approx. 2000 Korean owned businesses damaged
  86. Filipion Immigration
    Unrestricted until 1934 (islands were a U.S. territory until that point).
  87. Patriot Act of 2001
    Expands government power to detain, question and deport indefinite detention, warrent-less searches.
  88. Arab Americans Current Issues
    • Identifiability
    • High academic completion rate (most likely to have Masters or beyond)
    • High median income
    • Increase in political participation
    • Fear of crimes and discrimination
    • Prevalent stereotypes
  89. How many people in the U.S. are not heterosexual?
    Kinsey research estimated 10% of population more likely around 5% or approx. 13 million.
  90. Who is considered to be a sexual minority? (LGBT)
    • Lesbian (female attracted to female)
    • Gay (male attracted to female)
    • Bisexual (attracted to own gender and opposite gender)
    • Transsexual (Believes they were born the wrong gender)
    • Intrasexual (Born with both genitalia)
    • Questioning (Do not know, exploring)
  91. Treatment of LGBT individuals may be based in part on some cultural myths about this population. These myths include:
    • Easy to identify
    • Unproductive
    • Universal lifestyle
    • Promiscuous
    • Sexually obsessed
    • Sexual predators
    • All have AIDS
    • Bad parents
    • It is all about you
  92. Heterosexism
    "Harm to the dominant group comes in the broadest sense from the suppression and loss of human talent from which we could all benefit, and heterosexism thus has parallels in this regard to racism and sexism." (Neubeck, 1997)
  93. **The catalyst event for the social movement of LGBT population was the:
    • Stonewall Riots in NYC, 1969
    • -lasted about a week
    • -police vs. LGBT population
  94. Hate-Crime Law
    • Crimes motivated by bias that target persons based on their actual or perceived race, religion, gender, national origin, sexual orientation, disability, gender identity or ethnicity.
    • Left up to each state
  95. Non-Heterosexuals/Sexual Orientation Current Issues
    • Protests
    • Gay marriage
    • Rights
    • Reorientation therapies
    • Businesses
  96. Elderly Social Definition of Aging:
    Based on arbitrary age of 65 aging expectations differ by gender.
  97. The majority of old people are senile.
    False
  98. All five senses tend to decline in old age.
    True
  99. Most old people have no interest in, or capacity for sexual relations.
    False
  100. Lung vital capacity tends to decline in old age.
    True
  101. The majority of old people feel miserable most of the time.
    False
  102. Physical strength tends to decline in old age.
    True
  103. **At least one-tenth of the aged are living in a long-stay institution.
    False
  104. Aged drivers have fewer accidents per driver than drivers under age 65.
    True
  105. About 80% of the aged are healthy enough to carry out their normal activities.
    True
  106. **Most old people are set in their ways and unable to change.
    False
  107. Old people usually take longer to learn something new.
    True
  108. It is almost impossible for most old people to learn something new.
    False
  109. The reaction time of most old people tends to be slower than reaction time of younger people.
    True
  110. In general, most old people are pretty much alike.
    False
  111. **The majority of old people report that they are seldom bored.
    True
  112. Older workers have fewer accidents than younger workers.
    True
  113. **Less than 15% of the U.S. populatioin are now age 65 or over.
    False
  114. Most medical practitioners tend to give low priority to the aged.
    True
  115. **The majority of older people have incomes below the poverty level.
    False
  116. The majority of old people are working or would like to be.
    True
  117. Older people tend to become more religious as they age.
    False
  118. **The majority of old people report that they are seldom irritated or angry.
    True
  119. The health can socioeconomic status of older people in the year 2020 will probably be worse or about the same as that of today's older people.
    False
  120. Population Trends: There are been a dramatic increase in the aged in the U.S. since the early 1900's- why?
    • Water quality
    • Better quality of sanitation
    • Baby boomers
    • Better safety standards
    • Medical technology
  121. What are some problems experienced by the aged in US Society?
    • Change in status/roles
    • Change in family dynamics and expectations
    • Access to transportation
    • Maintenance cost (vechile insurance, goals, home repairs)
    • Stereotypes
  122. Income problems experienced by the aged are associated with:
    • Income (less than salary, that were getting)
    • Healthcare
    • Economy
    • Programs
  123. Elderly Current Issues:
    • Insurance Coverage (cost of medical care)
    • Retirement benefits
    • Protection from abuse (fear)
    • Laws concerning: driving, grandchildren, death
    • Activism and volunteering
  124. The suffrage movement in the U.S. began in 1830's and is linked with the abolition movement.
    True
  125. Minor v. Happerset (1875)
    Supreme court ruled that females born in the U.S. were a special category of non-voting citizens.
  126. **19th Amendment:
    • Gave women the right to vote
    • -1919 proposed
    • -1920 put in affect
  127. Equal Rights Amendment (1972)
    Protection from sex based discrimination passed through congress to be ratified by states.
  128. In 1982, the Equal Rights Amendment was voted against by:
    Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Nevada, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Utah, and Virgina.
  129. Title IX Educational Amendment (1972)
    Prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in educational opportunities (equal for genders)
  130. Deburca vs. Attorney General (1975)
    Individuals cannot be excluded from a jury due to gender.
  131. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (1980)
    • Agency that investigates gender discrimination cases
    • -"watchdog" for discrimination
  132. Lily Leadbetter Fair Pay Act (2009)
    • One of the first documents President Obama signed.
    • Better prosecution of discrimination cases.
    • Equal pay for same job
  133. Women for Current Issues
    • Pay equality
    • Feminization of poverty
    • Family role expectations
    • Glass ceiling
    • Health and mental health concerns (gender bias)
    • More likely to assess for depression in females.
    • Males can be depressed and can have eating problems
  134. National Defense Act (1916)
    Provided funding for rehabilitation and occupational training (disabled soliders)
  135. National Rehabilitation Act (1920)
    Expanded Defense Act to provide some services for the general public
  136. Social Security Act (1935)
    Provided specific funding for the assistance of the elderly, blind, and children with disabilities.
  137. Social Security Disability Insurance (1956)
    • 3 General Categories:
    • -Insured workers disabled before 65
    • -Widows, widowers of those disabled before 60
    • -Disabled children of eligible workers
  138. Ed Roberts (1962)
    • First severely disabled student to attend a University (UC at Berkeley)
    • Needed an iron lung 18 out of 24 hours
  139. Architectural Barriers Act (1968)
    Mandated physical accommodations in Federal Buildings
  140. Urban Mass Transit Act (1970)
    Mandated all urban transit systems accommodate the differently-abled.
  141. ADAPT (American Disabled for Accessible Public Transit)
    Advocacy group established to force compliance with Urban Mass Transit Act (First formed in Denver)
  142. Rehabilitation Act (1973)
    • Outlawed case "creaming" (taking the easiet cases first)
    • Established affirmative action in govt contracting more funding for architectural barriers in public places
  143. **Developmental Disablities Bill of Rights (1975)
    Protection of developmentally disabled focus on independence and integration
  144. Equal Education For All Handicapped Children Act (1975):
    • Created "mainstreaming" (inclusion)
    • Established IEP for student
    • Funding for early intervention
    • Focus on least restrictive educational environment
  145. There are 53 million Americans with disabilities, and nearly half of them use wheelchairs.
    False
  146. The groups currently most affected by disability are older adults and newborn infants.
    True
  147. Sign Language has a structure and grammar different from spoken English.
    True
  148. 99 percent of all legally deaf people have some hearing.
    True
  149. 99 percent of all legally blind people have some residual sight.
    True
  150. Cerebral palsy is a disorder that creates difficulties with speaking, and other functions but frequently has no negative effect on one's ability to think.
    True
  151. The unemployment rate of working-age Americans with disabilities is more than 70%.
    True
  152. When addressing a person with a disability, you should always raise your voice and speak very slowly.
    False
  153. Mental retardation is a condition that nearly always exists from birth.
    True
  154. Most adults with mental retardation are capable of living in the community and leading productive lives.
    True
  155. Learning-disabled children typically have mental retardation as well.
    False
  156. Ludwig van Beethoven, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Thomas Edison, Harriet Tubman, Albert Einstein and Edgar Degas all had disabilities.
    True
  157. The Paralympics are competitive games for serious athletes with disabilities and are held in the same location following the Olympics.
    True
  158. Although people with disabilities often can participate in the same professional, educational, and social activities as the non-disabled, additional tools or techniques are often necessary to achieve the same goals.
    True
  159. Mental illness and mental retardation are entirely separate disabling conditions.
    True
  160. Many of the rights granted citizens with disabilities under the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act were already covered in the 1973 Rehabilitiation Act.
    True
  161. Sexuality is as important to men and women with disabilities as it is to adults who are not disabled.
    True
  162. People with disabilities have the advantage of a simpler life and sunnier outlook and often are more cheerful and less burdened than those around them.
    False
  163. Even extroverts with disabilities can feel isolated in a crowd- blind people because they cannot see who else is present, deaf people because they cannot hear what others are saying to them and people in wheelchairs because the chair is sometimes a physical barrier.
    True
  164. Fair Housing Act (1988)
    • Prohibits discrimination in selling and renting on basis of: race, sex, disability, family, status, and national origin.
    • Must make "reasonable accommodations" paid for by the renting individual, not by the propery owner.
  165. **Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (1990)
    • Prohibits discrimination in:
    • -employment (over 15 employees)
    • -transportation
    • -Telecommunication
    • -Public Places
    • -Public Services
  166. Differently-Abled Current Issues
    • Genetic research
    • Insurance coverage
    • Access to healthcare
    • Use of diagnostic terms
    • Unemployment rate
    • Poverty
    • Need for resources
  167. What is Culture?
    A blueprint or program for what humans do (gives meaning to the world for the individual; its ongoing).
  168. How has this history impacted impacted us in our current culture and group relations?
    • Culture shapes our thoughts, feelings, and beliefs about how groups should be treated
    • People rarely challenge what is familiar
    • Pervasive stereotypes and expectations
  169. As a "blueprint" for what humans do, what are some of the basic functions of culture?
    • Human survival
    • Classification of the world
    • Interpretation of behavior
    • Means of problem solving
    • Socialization
    • Social organization and control
    • Values and behaviors are provided
  170. What are some personal factors affected by culture?
    • Identity and role expectations
    • Means of communication
    • Beliefs and attitudes
    • Appearance
    • Social behavior
    • Emotional expression
  171. How can the basic functions and personal factors of culture impact group relations?
    • Many influences are manifested as unconscious constraints and compulsions
    • Social
  172. How does biology interact with culture?
    Culture provides the context for how biological needs are to be met.
  173. Socialization
    Learning the basic social and mental skills necessary for functioning in human society (a guided process).
  174. **Primary Socialization
    • Occurs from the individuals main caretakers
    • (can be formal or informal)
  175. **Secondary Socialization
    • Occurs from the broader influences of society
    • (can be formal or informal)
  176. Needs and Drives:
    The socialization of primary and secondary drives and their connection to social values provide information about the motivation, reward structures, desires, and idealized selves..."
  177. Emotions
    Culture influences what evokes emotion, how emotions are expressed or inhibited and their social significance
  178. Gender roles
    Many cultural adaptations for gender roles- they are an importatn source of information about culture.
  179. Unconscious Cultural Acquistion:
    Aspects of social interaction (Such as social rules) that are acquired without deliberate attention.
  180. Behavioral Determinism
    Despite individual difference, within cultures people bahave in similar manners (cultural constraints on contextual behavior)
  181. **Socialization and Deviance
    Cultural influences are so pervasive that even when someone is deviant they follow cultural patterns.
  182. Intra-cultural variation- Real and Ideal Culture
    • Cultures have internal variation, such as for roles based on gender, age, and family composition.
    • Achievement of the roles vary widely (in real culture the roles may not be achievable).
  183. How does the environment influence culture and personal development?
    • Influences on: access to resources, safety issues, personal choices
    • Variation within culture in socialization
    • Experiences and responses (social class, family dynamics, subcultural experiences, value differences, adaptation).
  184. Certain features of life and development provide a point of reference for:
    Ethnic realities and cultural motivations
  185. How can culture influence an individual's personality- and how does this connect with theory?
    • Personality and connection to environment and individual behavioral responses plurarlistic, symbolic, expectations.
    • Self and culture are interdependent.

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