Biology Ch 2 Vocab Terms

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Biology Ch 2 Vocab Terms
2011-09-25 16:30:15
Biology Vocab Term

Biology Vocab
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  1. Atom
    The smallest basic unit of matter.
  2. Element
    One particular type of atom and can not be broken down into a simpilar substance by ordinary chemical means.
  3. Compound
    A substace made of atoms of different elements bonded together in a certain ratio.
  4. Ion
    An atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons.
  5. Ionic Bond
    A bond that forms threw the electrical force between oppositely charged ions.
  6. Covalent Bond
    A bond that forms when atom share a pare of electrons.
  7. Molecule
    Two or more atoms held together my covalent bonds
  8. Hydrogen Bond
    An attraction between a slightly hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom, offten oxygen or nitrogen.
  9. Cohesion
    Attraction among molecules of a substance.
  10. Adhesion
    The attract of molecules of different substances. Note: in other words, water molecules stick to other things.
  11. Solution
    A mixture of substances that is the same threw out. Note: It is a homogeneous mixture.
  12. Solvent
    The substance that is present in the greater amount and that disolves another substance.
  13. Solute
    A substance that disolves in solvent.
  14. Acid
    A compound that releases a proton-a hydrogen ion (H+) -When it disolves in water. Note: An acid increases the concentration of H+ ions in a solution.
  15. Bases
    Are compounds that remove H+ ions from a solution.
  16. pH
    Measurement of acidity; related to free hydrogen ion concentration in solution.
  17. Monomer
    Each subunit in the complete molecule.
  18. Polymer
    A large molecular, are macromolecule, made of many monomers binded together.
  19. Carbohydrates
    Molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and they include sugars and starches.
  20. Lipids
    Nonpoler molecules that include fats oils and cholesterol.
  21. Fatty Acids
    Chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms. Note: there are two types: saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids.
  22. Saturated Fats
    Contain fatty acids in which all carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds.
  23. Unsaturated Fats
    Have fatty acids with at leased one carbon-carbon double bond.
  24. Protein
    A polymer made of monomers called amino acids.
  25. Amino Acids
    Molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
  26. Nucleic Acids
    Polymers that are made up of monomers called nucleotides.
  27. Chemical Reactions
    Change substances into different substances by breaking and forming chemical bonds.
  28. Reactants
    The substances changed during a chemmical reaction.
  29. Products
    Substances mad by a chemical reaction.
  30. Bond Energy
    Amount of energy that will break a bond between two atoms.
  31. Equilibrimum
    Reached when both the reactents and product are made at the same rate.
  32. Activation Energy
    Amount of energy that needs to be absorbed for a chemical reaction to start.
  33. Exothermic
    Chemical reaction releases more energy than it absorbes.
  34. Endothermic
    Chemical reaction absorbs more energy than it releases.
  35. Catalyst
    Substance that decrease the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction, as a result,als increases the rate of chemical reaction
  36. Enzyme
    Are catalysts for chemical reactions in living things.
  37. Substrates
    Specific ractents that an enzym reactions on.