Chapter 1: The Scientific Understanding of Behavior

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reads2much
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104215
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Chapter 1: The Scientific Understanding of Behavior
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2011-09-25 15:41:32
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Scientific Understanding
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Methods in Behavioral Research
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  1. A Background in research methods will help people

    1. read research reports cirticually
    2. evaluate the methods used in research studies
    3. decide whether research conclusions are reasonable
    4. all of these
    All of these
  2. Jeremy clings to his personal explanation of behavior because it seems so obvious. He is using _______ to draw this conclusion.

    1. authority
    2. intuition
    3. empiricism
    4. the scientific method
    intuition
  3. When Sergio accepts an explanation because it comes from an expert, he is using _________ as the for his belief.

    1. authority
    2. intuition
    3. empiricism
    4. common sense
    authority
  4. Sally doesn't care that there isn't any scientific evidence confirming that people can learn while they sleep. She listens to language tapes each night solely because she feels they work. Her belief is based on ________.

    A)authority
    B)intuition
    C)empiricism
    D)common knowledge
    Intuition
  5. The scientific approach recognizes that both intuition and authority ________

    A)provide reliable explanations for behavior.
    B)are empirically tested assumptions about behavior
    C)are sources of ideas about behavior
    D)adhere to scientific explanations for behavior
  6. Scientific skepticism means that __________.

    A)scientists reject the ideas of nonscientists
    B)scientists do not believe what they cannot see themselves
    C)scientists evaluate ideas on the basis of personal logic and intuition
    D)ideas must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic and the results from scientific investigations
    ideas must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic and the results from scientific investigations
  7. The fundamental characteristic of the scientific method is __________.
    A)intuition
    B)empiricism
    C)replication
    D)skepticism
    Empiricism
  8. According to Goodstein's (2000) "evolved theory of science," which of the following is NOT a characteristic of scientific inquiry?

    A)Scientists make observations that are accurately reported to other scientists and the public so others can replicate the methods and obtain the same results.
    B)Science flourishes when there is an open system for the exchange of ideas in which supporters and those who disagree with an idea can report their research and it can be evaluated by others.
    C)Research studies must be reviewed by peers before they become a part of the scientific literature.
    D)Scientists search for observations that support ideas popular to others and viewed by other scientists as publishable.
    Scientists search for observations that support ideas popular to others and viewed by other scientists as publishable.
  9. What is the advantage of the scientific approach over other ways of knowing about the world?

    A)The scientific approach provides an objective set of rules for gathering, evaluating, and reporting information.
    B)The scientific approach provides a method of generating ideas, observing biases, and supporting knowledge.
    C)The scientific approach includes the assertions of authority as scientific evidence.
    D)The scientific approach provides a subjective environment to discuss science with others.
    The scientific approach provides an objective set of rules for gathering, evaluating, and reporting information.
  10. Before accepting the claims of a scientist, it is worthwhile to __________.

    A)evaluate the credentials of the individual
    B)examine the researcher's source of funding
    C)examine the reputation of the institution represented by the person
    D)all of these
    All of these
  11. The four general goals of scientific research are to __________.

    A)explain, examine, predict, and manipulate behavior
    B)describe, manipulate, evaluate, and change behavior
    C)describe, predict, determine the causes of, and understand or explain behavior
    D)observe, predict, evaluate, and determine outcomes of behavior
    describe, predict, determine the causes of, and understand or explain behavior
  12. What are test-anxious students like? Do they finish an exam more slowly or faster than non-anxious students? This question addresses which goal of scientific research?

    A)prediction of behavior
    B)description of events
    C)determination of the causes of behavior
    D)explanation of behavior
    Description of events
  13. Which of the following is NOT one of the three types of evidence required to identify the cause of a behavior?

    A)correlation of the effect and time
    B)covariation of the cause and effect
    C)elimination of alternative explanations
    D)temporal precedence
    Correlation of the effect and time
  14. Researchers want to know why college students prefer multiple-choice rather than essay exams. The goal of this research is __________.

    A)prediction of behavior
    B)description of events
    C)determination of the causes of behavior
    D)explanation of behavior
    explanation of behavrior
  15. Basic research tries to answer questions about __________.

    A)practical problems
    B)the nature of behavior
    C)a program's effectiveness
    D)problems with potential solutions
    the nature of beahvior
  16. Illusory correlation is a cognitive bias that occurs when we focus on two events that stand out and occur together.

    A)True
    B)False
    True
  17. The fundamental characteristics of the scientific method are intuition and authority.

    A)True
    B)False
    False
  18. Peer review ensures that only the best research is published.

    A)True
    B)False
    True
  19. Pseudoscience often generates hypotheses that are not testable.

    A)True
    B)False
    True
  20. The primary goal of science is to change behavior.

    A)True
    B)False
    False
  21. Scientists' explanations of behavior often must be discarded or revised as new evidence is gathered.

    A)True
    B)False
    True
  22. Program evaluation research evaluates social reforms.

    A)True
    B)False
    True
  23. Basic research is considered more important than applied research.

    A)True
    B)False
    False
  24. Applied research is often not published in scientific journals.

    A)True
    B)False
    True
  25. An example of applied research is B.F. Skinner's research on operant conditioning.

    A)True
    B)False
    False

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