Chem ch 2

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pugsrule915
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104220
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Chem ch 2
Updated:
2011-09-25 17:27:48
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Chem
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Chem ch 2
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  1. Greek philosophers
    led to fundamental substances called elements
  2. Democritus
    said elements were composed of tiny particles that couldn't be further divided
  3. Robert Boyle
    Showed matter is made up of atoms (from studies of air and gases) and elements were pure substances that couldn't be broken down any further
  4. Joesph Priestly
    heated mercury 2 oxide and produced oxygen
  5. Antoine Lavoisier
    showed oxygen was a key substance in combustion reactions and that in a combusion reaction, the mass of products = mass of reactants
  6. Law of Mass Conservation
    Mass is neither created or destroyed
  7. Joesph Proust
    • law of definite proportions
    • dif samples of pure substances always contain the same proportions of elements by mass
  8. John Dalton
    • Dalton's Atomic Theory
    • -elements are made of tiny particles called atoms
    • -atoms of the same element have the same mass (thought what made elements dif was their masses)
    • -chemical combinations of elements only occur in whole # ratios
    • -chemical reactions only rearrange the way the atoms are combined; the atoms themselves are unchanged
  9. law of multiple proportions
    • -the same elements can combine in dif ways to form dif substances, whose mass ratios are small, whole # multiples of each other.
    • -ex: CO, CO2= 2 times more O in CO2 than CO
  10. structure of atoms
    electrons, protons, neutrons
  11. Dimitri Mendeleev
    arranged elements in order of increasing atomic weight
  12. chemical bond
    force that holds 2 atoms together- covalent or ionic
  13. covalent bond
    sharing of e-s H2O
  14. ionic bond
    transfer of e-s NaCl
  15. Structural formula
    • shows how molecule put together
    • H
    • / \
    • O O
  16. molecular compound
    uses covalent bonds to form molecules
  17. polyatomic ion
    charged molecule
  18. hydrate
    • compound in which a certain # of h2o molecules are contained in the formula
    • ex: CaCl2 * 6H2O
  19. Alkanes
    hydrocarbons saturated w/ hydrogens

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