Chapter 3: Ethical Research

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Chapter 3: Ethical Research
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2011-09-25 16:09:17
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Methods Behavioral Research
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Chapter 3
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  1. Milgram's obedience study was purportedly an experiment on __________.

    A)shock and memory
    B)learning and shock
    C)learning and reward
    D)memory and learning
    memory and learning
  2. Which of the following is NOT one of the three basic ethical principles in the Belmont Report?

    A)beneficence
    B)respect for persons
    C)empathy
    D)justice
    empathy
  3. To be assured that research procedures have minimized risk to participants, a ___________ must be done before research can be approved.

    A)plus-minus analysis
    B)cost-reward analysis
    C)risk-benefit analysis
    D)pro-con analysis
    risk-benefit analysis
  4. In some cases, the risks entailed with loss of confidentiality are so great that researchers may wish to apply for a Certificate of Confidentiality from the __________.

    A)U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
    B)American Medical Association
    C)American Psychological Association
    D)Institutional Review Board
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
  5. Informed consent forms should be written __________.

    A)in the first person
    B)using specific technical terminology
    C)at a sixth to eighth grade reading level
    D)in legalistic terms
    at a sixth to eighth grade reading level
  6. Any procedure that limits an individual's freedom to consent to participate in a study can be __________.

    A)a violation of confidentiality
    B)potentially coercive
    C)approved by the IRB
    D)justified
    potentially coercive
  7. Which of the following is TRUE about the informed consent procedure?

    A)It may bias the sample and limit generalizability of the results
    .B)It leads to an expectation of payment for participation.
    C)It ensures that participants will give unbiased responses.
    D)It is no longer routinely used in laboratory research
    It may bias the sample and limit generalizability of the results
  8. Which of the following is a reason for the decrease in the type of elaborate deception used in the Milgram study?

    A)Researchers have become more interested in emotions rather than cognitive variables.
    B)There is an increased awareness of the ethical issues relating to the use of deception.
    C)Ethics committees have banned the use of deception studies.
    D)both b and c
    There is an increased awareness of the ethical issues relating to the use of deception.
  9. During a research study, the debriefing takes place _______.

    A)as part of the informed consent procedure
    B)after the completion of the study
    C)before any deceptive activities begin
    D)after an individual agrees to participate
    after the completion of the study
  10. The Stanford Prison Experiment is an example of a __________ study.

    A)honest
    B)role-playing
    C)reality
    D)simulation
    simulation
  11. According to the justice principle defined in the Belmont Report, any decision to include or exclude certain people from a research study must be __________.

    A)approved by the American Psychological Association Ethics Committee
    B)justified on scientific grounds
    C)equal and fair to all participants
    D)approved by the Judicial Committee of the Belmont Agency
    justified on scientific grounds
  12. Which of the following statements is TRUE?

    A)The actual rules and regulations for the protection of human research participants were issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
    B)Every institution that receives federal funds must have an Institutional Review Board.
    C)All research conducted at an institution is reviewed in some way by the IRB.
    D)all the these
    all of these
  13. An anonymous questionnaire is usually considered __________ research.

    A)exempt
    B)minimal risk
    C)greater than minimal risk
    D)summary approval
    exempt
  14. All institutions in which animal research is carried out must have an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee that is __________.

    A)charged with conducting all animal research within the institution
    B)composed of one doctor and two students
    C)charged with ensuring that all regulations are adhered to
    D)all the these
    charged with ensuring that all regulations are adhered to
  15. Fraud in the field of psychology is __________.

    A)common and a major problem faced by the scientific community
    B)considered to be a minor issue because it involves data, not people
    C)not addressed in the APA Ethics Code
    D)often detected when research results cannot be replicated
    often detected when research results cannot be replicated
  16. Stanley Milgram's research challenged many beliefs about the ability of individuals to resist authority.

    A)True
    B)False
    true
  17. The Belmont Report's principle of autonomy states that participants are capable of making deliberate decisions about whether or not they will participate in research.

    A)True
    B)False
    True
  18. The problem of deception in scientific studies is limited to laboratory research.

    A)True
    B)False
    False
  19. Many psychologists believe that the problem of deception in research has been exaggerated.

    A)True
    B)False
    True
  20. The most serious defect of role playing is the time it takes to complete in a laboratory setting.

    A)True
    B)False
    False
  21. An example of minimal risk research is having healthy volunteers engage in moderate exercise

    .A)True
    B)False
    True
  22. The IRB considers the study of normal educational practices as no risk research.

    A)True
    B)False
    True
  23. Most psychologists do not support animal research.

    A)True
    B)False
    False
  24. Sir Cyril Burt's report that the IQ scores of identical twins reared apart were highly similar is an example of research fraud.

    A)True
    B)False
    True

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