Chapter 4: Studying Behavior

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reads2much
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104223
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Chapter 4: Studying Behavior
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2011-09-25 16:27:25
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Methods Behavioral Research
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Chapter 4
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  1. In the scientific study of behavior, any event, situation, or behavior that varies is called a(n) __________.

    A)observation
    B)constant
    C)category
    D)variable
    Variable
  2. Which of the following is NOT a variable?

    A)number of inches in a foot
    B)hair color
    C)age
    D)grade point average
    Number of inches in a foot
  3. The number of students in a class is an example of a __________ variable.

    A)situational
    B)response
    C)participant or subject
    D)mediating
    Situational
  4. The time it takes participants to complete a computer task is an example of a __________ variable.

    A)situational
    B)response
    C)participant or subject
    D)mediating
    response
  5. The marital status of research participants is an example of a __________ variable.

    A)situational
    B)response
    C)participant or subject
    D)mediating
    participant or subject
  6. Psychological processes that explain the effects of a situational variable on a particular response are called __________ variables.

    A)situational
    B)response
    C)participant or subject
    D)mediating
    mediating
  7. Dr. M measured students' performance on a verbal task by recording the number of words they correctly identified during a five-minute session. The number of words correctly identified is referred to as the __________ definition.

    A)task
    B)response
    C)operational
    D)concrete
    operational
  8. Researchers found that as the temperature in a city increased there was also an increase in the number of crimes reported. This is an example of a ___________ relationship.

    A)positive linear
    B)negative linear
    C)curvilinear
    D)amplified linear
    positive linear
  9. There is a __________ relationship between the number of classes students miss and final exam scores. As the number of days absent increase, the scores on the final exam decrease.

    A)positive linear
    B)negative linear
    C)curvilinear
    D)amplified linear
  10. When researchers study the relationship among variables using the __________ method, behavior is observed as it occurs naturally.

    A)nonexperimental
    B)field experiment
    C)experimental
    D)causal
    nonexperimental
  11. In the nonexperimental method, the third-variable problem refers to _________.

    A)experimenter intervention
    B)an extra-operational definition
    C)confounding variables
    D)the need to add another variable in the study
    confounding variables
  12. The experimental method eliminates the influence of extraneous variables to ensure that any differences between groups is due to the __________ variable.

    A)dependent
    B)manipulated
    C)control
    D)third
    manipulated
  13. In an experimental study, the __________ variable is considered to be the "cause."

    A)extraneous
    B)independent
    C)dependent
    D)subject or participant
    independent
  14. The major disadvantage of conducting a lab experiment is the ___________.

    A)artificial atmosphere
    B)lack of control over extraneous variables
    C)inability to manipulate independent variables
    D)dependence on student participants
    artificial atmosphere
  15. ___________ validity refers to the ability to draw conclusions about causal relationships.

    A)External
    B)Construct
    C)Internal
    D)Conclusion
    internal
  16. When the experimental method is used, ______________ validity is maximized.

    A)external
    B)internal
    C)conclusion
    D)construct
    internal
  17. A variable must have two or more levels or values.

    A)True
    B)False
    True
  18. A variable is an abstract concept that must be defined in terms of the specific method used to measure or manipulate it.

    A)True
    B)False
    True
  19. A positive linear relationship is sometimes referred to as a nonmonotonic function.

    A)True
    B)False
    False
  20. In a negative linear relationship, the direction of the relationship changes at least once.

    A)True
    B)False
    False
  21. If two variables are confounded, you can easily determine which of the variables is operating in a given situation.

    A)True
    B)False
    false
  22. When the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable is plotted on a graph, the dependent variable is always placed on the vertical axis.

    A)True
    B)False
    True
  23. The ex post facto design describes research in which groups are formed on the basis of some actual difference rather than through random assignment.

    A)True
    B)False
    True
  24. Ethnic group is an example of a subject variable.

    A)True
    B)False
    True
  25. Validity refers to the accurate representation of information.

    A)True
    B)False
    True
  26. External validity refers to the adequacy of the operational definition of variables.

    A)True
    B)False
    False
  27. Achieving high internal validity may conflict with achieving high external validity.

    A)True
    B)False
    True

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