Chapter 4: Studying Behavior

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  1. Conclusion Validity
    Extent to which the conclusions about the relationships among variable reached on the basis of the date are correct
  2. Confounding Variable
    • A variable that is not controlled in a research investigation
    • In an experiment, the experimental groups differ on both the independent variable and the confounding variable
  3. Construct Validity
    The degree to which a measurement device accurately measures that theoretical construct it is designed to measure
  4. correlation coefficient
    an index of how strongly two variable are related to each other
  5. Curvilinear Relationship
    A relationship in which increase in the value of the first variable are accompanied by both increase and decrease in the values of the second variable
  6. dependent variable
    the variable that is the subject's response to; and dependent on, the level of the manipulated independent variable
  7. Experimental Control
    ALL extraneous variables are kept constant
  8. experimental method
    • A method of determining whether variable are related
    • the researcher manipulates the independent variable
    • controls all other variable either by randomization or by direct experimental control
  9. external validity
    the degree to which the results of an experiment may be generalized
  10. field experiment
    an experiment that is conducted in a natural setting rather than in a lab
  11. independent variable
    the variable that is manipulated to observe its effect on the dependent variable
  12. Internal Validity
    The certainty with which results of an experiment can be attributed to the manipulation of the independent variable rather than to some other, confounding variable
  13. mediating variable
    psychological processes that mediate the effects of a situational variable on a particular response
  14. Negative Linear Relationship
    A Relationship in which increase in the values of the first variable are accompanied by decreases in the values of the second variable
  15. Nonexperimental method (correlational method)
    Use of measurement of variable to determine whether variable are related to one another
  16. Operational Definition
    Definition of a concept that specifies the operation used to measure or manipulate the concept
  17. Participant (subject) Variable
    • characteristics of individuals
    • age, gender, ethnic group, nationality, birth order, personality, or marital status
    • nonexperimental
    • must be measured
  18. Positive Linear Relationship
    A relationship in which increase in the values of the first variable are accompanied by increases in the values of the second variable
  19. Response Variable
    • The responses or behaviors of individuals
    • reaction time, performance on a cognitive task
  20. Situational variables
    • describe characteristics of a situation or environments
    • length of words that you read in a book, the spatial density of a classroom
  21. Third-Variable Problem
    • When describing the relationship between two variables, a third variable is any other variable that is extraneous to the two variable of interest
    • True experiments control for the possible influence of third variables
  22. Variable
    Any event, situation, behavior, or individual characteristic that varies - that is, has at least two variables.
Card Set
Chapter 4: Studying Behavior
Chapter 4 Vocab
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